Wednesday, November 22, 2017

a long-form piece at the Texas National Security Review on the durable coherence of Pax Anglo-Saxonica despite putative differences between socialists (H G Wells) and imperialists (Kipling)

The pursuit of something called “world order” has been an almost ever-present feature of Western – more specifically, American and British — statecraft for at least 100 years. It is embedded in a discourse about international affairs that can be traced back to the late 19th century, when Britain became increasingly conscious of the fragility of its empire, and the United States began to recognize the full extent of its potential power. Notions of regional or international order date further back than that and have long had a central place in conceptions of European statecraft, since the Treaty of Westphalia at least. But, the pursuit of world order speaks to a higher objective than the pursuit of the national interest or the mere preservation of stability and security in one’s neighborhood.

All versions of world order are, to some extent, aspirational and visionary. They express a wish to guide the international future towards a more desirable destination. This is obviously true of more idealized versions of world order, some of which have gone so far as to envisage a future utopia in which humanity is unified under one law, war is abolished and reason prevails in the governance of man (seen in the work of H.G. Wells, for example). But, it also applies to more avowedly “realist” thinking on world order, which seeks “co-evolution” among nation states or great civilizational blocs as a better means to preserve international harmony, while eschewing “universalism” (in the alternative vision of Henry Kissinger).4 Either way, the historical record suggests that one’s view of world order is inseparable from one’s worldview. It reveals the beholder’s hope for how the world should or could be, rather than simply how it is.

The pursuit of world order has taken many forms in the last 100 years of Anglo-American statecraft, and its terms have been bitterly contested. It has been used as shorthand for a vast range of potential scenarios: from a unified “world state,” governed by a single supranational institution, to a balance of power in which the strongest prevail. Somewhere between these two poles sits the idea of “liberal international order” — the precise terms of which are much contested today. This essay does not seek to establish a typology between these various definitions, or to place them on an idealist-realist spectrum. The fluidity of the foreign policy debate, and the changing positions of those engaged in it, belies any such attempt. Instead, the essay seeks to identify a number of key inflection points in the evolution and metastization of different Anglo-American ideas of “world order” over the last century.
The method adopted is that used by scholars of intellectual history, which has increasingly been applied to the study of international relations in recent years. In the first instance, this stresses the context-specific meaning of key political ideas (such as world order), while also opening up an inquiry into their genesis and lineage.5 This inquiry begins with an analysis of a particular moment in November 1969, when the fundamental assumptions of American foreign policy were being re-examined, and it expands from there. Simply speaking, it demonstrates the enduring power of ideas.

Specifically, the idea that a better world was achievable — through a combination of vision and human ingenuity — has provided a higher cause and unifying philosophy in Anglo-American statecraft. While conceptual purity has been elusive, the commitment to this endeavor has transcended different historical eras. When viewed over the longue durĂ©e, the yearning for equilibrium, structure, and order in international affairs provides an explanatory spine to the story of American and British foreign policy over the course of the last century. It also becomes clear that contending ideas of world order have been entwined with existential questions, such as the meaning of history, the survival of Western civilization, and the very future of mankind.


For a fleeting moment, America’s entry into the Great War and Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points re-energized the idea that such a Western-led world order could be built.61 While some of the supporters of the Anglo-American alliance in Britain were imperial survivalists, there were also genuine internationalists in the mould of Wells. The failure of the United States to join the League of Nations in 1920 was a bitter disappointment to the advocates of this new world order. At the same time, quite justifiably, some of the most forthright advocates of American internationalism believed that the project had been corrupted in inception by the failure of the European powers — Britain foremost among them — to abandon their imperial ambitions.62

No sooner, then, had the concept of “world order” been transferred from theorists to statesmen that it became associated with failure. ...

Yet, to return to the fundamental point of this essay, the definition of world order matters much less than the sense in which it has been held out as the ultimate goal of Western statecraft.

As H.G. Wells wrote in 1940, what was really important was not the identity of the people who pursued world order, the timeline on which it was to be achieved or the nature of the utopia they envisaged. He explained:
No man, no group of men, will ever be singled out as its father or founder. For its maker will be not this man nor that man nor any man but Man, that being who is in some measure in every one of us.
Instead, world order would be like most great civilizational achievements, “a social product” and “collective achievement” of many lives. What really mattered was that people in a century scourged by human destruction were now engaged in this collective effort:
A growing miscellany of people are saying — it is getting about — that “World Pax is possible,” a World Pax in which men will be both united and free and creative. It is of no importance at all that nearly every man of fifty and over receives the idea with a pitying smile. Its chief dangers are the dogmatist and the would-be “leader” who will try to suppress every collateral line of work which does not minister to his supremacy. This movement must be, and it must remain, many-headed. … The new order will be incessant; things will never stop happening. …91
The pursuit of world order may indeed be a many-headed monster or the vaguest of aspirations. It is a work of abstract art never complete.  ...

Not just a work of abstract art, you could say, but a vision of a total work of art which has as its subject humanity itself; it's not that difficult to consider the possibility that European avant garde thought and various elements within the traditions of Western liberalism have ultimately had as its goal building a tower in the plains of Shinar, while attempting to obfuscate to itself how obviously this has been the case. 

over at Slipped Disc, a note about how it's Nikolai Kapustin's birthday, so we'll have a short list of recent dissertations on the composer's work.

I first learned of Kapustin's work through ... it was some Boston arts online journal.  The name escapes me but there was an interesting survey of the jazz-influenced piano concerto that mentioned Kapustin's work.  I've given a lot of his piano sonatas a listen and I'm afraid that as charming as they are mid-listen they're pretty in-one-ear-and-out-the-other for me.  I like them while I'm listening to them but they're hard to remember.

The preludes and fugues, on the other hand, those are really good!   It's probably my favorite cycle of preludes and fugues for solo piano since the Shostakovich cycle.  I mean, the Rodion Shchedrin set of preludes and fugues is pretty cool, too, but the Kapustin preludes and fugues are a pretty fine set of pieces.  What I admire about Kapustin's cycle of preludes and fugues is what he doesn't do with them that may be somewhat common among Soviet composers and composers from the former Soviet bloc--which is to say I notice this more with the Shostakovich and Shchedrin and Rekhin cycles--of focusing on cyclical unifying variables to a degree that I frankly don't think is necessary for a set of preludes and fugues.  A cycle of fugues is a grab bag, it should be a reflection of any and every possible variable of stye within a musical epoch or region.  Bach's famous forty-eight don't have a thread of linking motifs across all the subjects and preludes of the sort you might detect in Shchedrin, and there's no recursive formulation of fourth alternations like the Rekhin cycle. 

If Kapustin takes a few liberties in accenting harmonies that, strictly speaking, shouldn't be in a merely three-voiced fugue to establish that he's opening with a subject on a sixth scale degree that can be a little jarring at first but fairly easily forgiven.  Given the expanded harmonic pallete of even the most conservative 20th century music we shouldn't be too surprised by that kind of thing.

Kapustin is probably not the first or only composer to attempt a giant contrapuntal cycle that draws inspiration more from Art Tatum, Oscar Peterson and other early jazz masters than Bach.  Michelle Gorrell's cycle isn't fully published yet but I have liked what I've heard her do with a jazz/classical fusion.  I'm less excited about the Henry Martin cycle but some of the preludes and fugues in that set are really good.  Overall, however, Kapustin's contrapuntal cycle comes closest to making use of jazz vocabularies within a context that would be considered "classical".  That said, however, Kapustin never considers what he composes to be jazz since it's all meticulously written out in his scores what you play and, additionally, there's no improvisation.  As scholars who have discussed Kapustin's work have repeatedly noted, one of the loopholes in Soviet-era bans on jazz had to do with whether or not there was improvisation in the music.  If the vocabulary was otherwise jazz but did not have improvisation of any kind then government censure was relatively unlikely.  Of course you could still end up in the Gulag anyway for all sorts of other reasons like a Zaderatsky or a Weinberg but we're not talking about them today. 

If I have a recurring critique of Kapustin's work it's that he lets his fingers do the talking and they can talk a lot.  His macro-structural approach to form is usually fine but the way Charles Rosen put it, sonata forms are a set of techniques that can be used to put in relief thematic relationships.  So that's the nerdy scholar-invoking way of saying that Kapustin's themes are often fun and listenable but that his capacity for thematic differentiation can be weak in his sonatas.  He never has that problem in his preludes and fugues, which are (at least in my experience and opinion) reliably good across his entire cycle.  If I were to nominate a set of early 21st century preludes and fugues for more detailed scholarly at a doctoral level (not even trying to just drop hints here), Kapustin's set would be the set to dig into.  Thankfully Schott has published volumes 1 and 2 of his cycle as of 2015. 

In case you want to do any further reading on Kapustin's work these doctoral dissertations are all fairly recent and you can probably find open source versions of them if you can[t find them within university library exchange tools of some kind.

Jonathan Edward Mann
Red, White, and Blue Notes: The Symbiotic Music of Nikolai Kapustin
University of Cincinnati

Jonathan Eugene Roberts
Classical Jazz: The Life and Musical Innovations of Nikolai Kapustin
University of Alabama

Tatiana Abramova
The Synthesis of Jazz and Classical Styles in Three Piano Works of Nikolai Kapustin
Temple University

Classical and Jazz Influences in the Music of Nikolai Kapustin: Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 55 
by Tyulkova, Yana, D.M.A., West Virginia University, 2015, 99; 3702047
Poised between two worlds : Nikolai Kapustin's Piano Sonata No. 1 and the classical and jazz tradition
Kit Loong Yee
Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Sunday, November 19, 2017

Seattle press reports arrest of man, and seizure of AR-15 rifle, who threatened Cross and Crown Church, formerly Mars Hill Ballard

William Wallace II
posted 01-06-2001 09:01 PM

I love to fight. It's good to fight. Fighting is what we used to do before we all became pussified. Fighting is a lost art form. Fighting is cheaper than medication and more effective than counseling. Fighting always wins over compromise. Fighting is what passionate people do instead of killing. So log on, fight away. And if you are reading this and talking to yourself log on you coward and get in the ring.

Radical Reformission
ISBN 0-310-25659-3Mark Driscoll
copyright 2004 by Mars Hill Church

page 14
... So I married Grace, began studying Scripture with the enthusiasm of a glutton at a buffet, and started preparing myself to become a pastor who does not go to jail for doing something stupid. To pay the bills, I edited the opinions section of the campus newspaper, writing inflammatory columns that led to debates, radio interviews, and even a few bomb threats--which was wonderful, because the only thing worse than dying is living a boring life.

There may never come a day when the co-founding elder of what was once Mars Hill, Mark Driscoll, may fully be able to appreciate the legacy he has made for himself.  He can talk about the number of people that were baptized at Mars Hill Church and never have to stop to wonder how many of those people who were baptized then are even still Christians now.  He can also talk about how many people got married, even though he preached himself that the first day of your marriage isn't what defines your marriage, the last day does.  He can talk about the lives that were changed in abstract ways, about lives changed by Jesus ... but as I've written extensively over the years which Jesus are we talking about?  The Jesus presented in the Bible or a Jesus reverse-engineered in Driscoll's preaching to correspond to Mark Driscoll's own ideas about manliness?  A person with a life changed by that kind of Jesus may end up twice the son of hell he might have been before.

After Pussified Nation was made available for public consideration Driscoll made a point of saying he felt differently in 2014 than he did when he wrote as William Wallace II.  In a 2006 he admitted he sinned and cussed a lot but that God drew a straight line with a crooked stick.  But at no point has Mark Driscoll said that he thinks differently on social and gender issues now than he did in his 2000 provocation. 

He can say that he no longer feels the way he did when he was writing as William Wallace II.  He may one day even think differently than he did when he wrote as William Wallace II.  Had a whole lot more of us seen William Wallace II to be who Mark Driscoll really was without a mask of public piety, there might have been no Mars Hill left after 2001, but too many of us who were there thought the show was for confrontation.  People needed to have a sense of humor and recognize a character on a message board for what it was.  Others of us (me) mistakenly believed that while the rants reflected who the guy really was at the time, he could get better and had submitted himself to older and wiser men who would be able to reel him in and spur him to dial things back.  Obviously that hope proved to be profoundly mistaken and I hope to never stop regretting the small part I played in entertaining that overly permissive and optimistic hope. 

The Mark Driscoll at The Trinity Church is the Mark Driscoll who wrote the passages quoted above about how he loved fighting and that he wrote editorials that even allegedly inspired a few bomb threats. 

Why mention this?

Because the legacy of Mark Driscoll and how he led Mars Hill Church and the kind of leadership example he provided to his leadership culture can never be merely checklists of baptisms and wedding ceremonies and "lives changed".  There are also the other things like those who saw how Mark Driscoll and others chose to live and, in response, chose to reject the Christian faith; or those marriages that were founded on a vision of married life inculcated by a Driscollian example that Real Marriage revealed may have been more of an act for the public than a lived reality; because the kind of man who could have proxies lament that other people cribbed his work may have taken a few shortcuts on footnotes himself. Because, in a phrase, in his post Mars Hill interviews Mark Driscoll has seemed a bit more eager to take credit for positives than to mention any particular negatives. Because it's possible for legacies to live on, but especially because it's possible for legacies to live on in ways that impact people I've met.

So, in case anyone actually forgot this, Cross and Crown was once Mars Hill Ballard. It wasn't going to escape my attention that some man was arrested recently for issuing threats to Cross and Crown Church.   This was reported recently be Deborah Horne.

and also at

Goga's alleged messages were sent to pastors at the Cross and Crown Church. The pastors told police that Goga had not been in contact with any members of the church for about a 18 months, when, they said, he had previously threatened to burn the church down -- an incident that was not reported to police. The pastors told police Goga had become upset with them because they had recommended he seek medical help for past comments he had made.


Goga reportedly had previously attended the Cross and Crown Church and threatened to burn it down a year and a half ago, according to police. That threat reportedly came after church members told Goga to seek medical treatment.

According to police, he began sending emails to the church in October saying "people are going to get themselves killed now" and "time to engage the artillery and kill you all."

Seattle police officers arrested a 25-year-old man in Snoqualmie on November 9 for allegedly sending a series of threatening emails to a University District church that he previously attended, according to the department's blotter. Police detectives seized an AR-15 rifle from the man's home in Covington after his arrest.
A police spokesperson identified the arrestee as Edeek Goga. King County prosecutors on Thursday charged Goga with felony harassment for the alleged threats. Jail records show that he was released on bail on November 14. Prosecutors had request bond of $100,000.

Goga allegedly began sending threatening emails to Cross and Crown Church in October, including a message saying "time to engage the artillery and kill you all.” Goga's messages followed a Facebook post 12 days earlier containing a photo of an AR-15 and the message "going on an adventure.” Church officials reportedly called the police, and officers made note of call.

On Tuesday, the King County Prosecuting Attorney’s office charged a 25-year-old Covington man with felony harassment for threatening violence against a Seattle church, according to charging documents. Seattle Police arrested Edeek Grigorovich Goga on Nov. 9 and placed him in King County Jail, but he was released on bail five days later, according to jail records.

On the evening of Oct. 26, Edeek Grigorovich Goga reportedly sent threatening emails to two pastors at the Cross and Crown Church in the University District, which he had previously attended. It was the first time Goga had contacted any of the church members since allegedly threatening to burn down the building a year and a half ago. The October emails to the pastors contained criticism of the church for recommending that Goga seek medical treatment: “Time to engage the artillery and kill you all,” they read, in part. Although the church hadn’t reported the previous arson threat, the pastors did alert SPD of the emails because they feared that Goga might act upon his threats.


Seattle Police Swat arrested Goga at his landscaping job in Snoqualmie on November 9, and detectives later confiscated an AR-15 semi-automatic rifle from his Covington home.
According to the charging documents, Goga told police that he was angry at the Cross and Crown Church for not helping him overcome his depression, but that they “should have known that he did not intend to carry through with his threat.”

Now for the review of the history of how Mars Hill Ballard became Cross and Crown.  Cross and Crown has had a bit of a journey in terms of real estate, but it was formerly a church that opened up in the wake of the demise of Mars Hill, and was onceMars Hill Ballard.
Eventually Cross and Crown Church relocated after the sale of the former Ballard campus to Quest Church

Cross and Crown Church relocated to what was once the Mars Hill University District campus, and purchased that real estate on March 10, 2016 according to the King County Assessor records.

It's worth emphasizing that a big reason this matters is because back in the William Wallace II days Mark Driscoll's approach was to write incendiary, provocative stuff and then all of a sudden when people decided to escalate real-world aggression in response to Driscoll's on-line provocations his tune changed abruptly.  We'll get to that tone-shift soon enough but first ...

One of the things Driscoll mentioned in his 2013 piece "The Hardest Part of Ministry" was the fear he had for the safety of his family, a thoroughly understandable and legitimate concern.  Yet in all of that verbiage Driscoll avoided mentioning that he had a long history of deliberately incendiary public statements.  The easiest example of how he decided to court controversy was with Pussified Nation but we have the quotation from his 2004 book establishing that he managed to, by his account, incite some bomb threats and that he loved that because the only thing worse than death would be a boring life right?

And then when potentially emotionally or mentally unstable (or simply very angry) people escalated responses to seeking physical confrontations Driscoll suddenly dropped the role-playing and talked about how crazy it was that people were taking things too seriously.

Coming from a man who would, ten years later, only be seen by the majority of Mars Hill Church members through the mediation of a screen and a week later than the date he would preach his sermons the irony of this 2001 polemic would be hard to overstate.  The line between fantasy and reality can be pretty easily crossed when you go out of your way to not deal with people in person. 

For a guy who claimed to be a pastor he should know there's a proverb about how like throwing around flaming arrows, firebrands and death is the one who deceives his neighbor and then says "I was joking." 

Having recently finished reading Justin Dean's book PR Matters what jumps out about this recent headline is that the arrested person had an association with a church community that was once part of Mars Hill.  As Justin Dean has gone out from his post-mars Hill work into publishing a book on how public relations is important for your church he's shared some stuff that suggests that we who have covered the history of Mars Hill have potentially seen just the  tip of the iceberg of a large church culture with some stuff that hadn't been discussed while Mars Hill existed.  We'll get to a specific example on the subject of men with guns who were church members precisely because Dean mentioned a case in his new book.

It's important to establish that prior to working on staff in communications at Mars Hill Justin Dean never worked in PR for a church previously and he has not been listed as on staff in a PR capacity since the end of Mars Hill at very many a place (i.e. any so far).

Communications Director

Mars Hill Church
(3 years 3 months)
I oversaw all communications, content and editorial, social media, and public relations for one of the largest churches in America.

Founded in 1996 by Pastor Mark Driscoll, Mars Hill was one church with 15 locations in 5 states and ultimately closed its doors at the end of 2014. Visit to learn more.

Prior to Mars Hill he worked at Ygnition Networks and since Mars Hill he has not listed being on staff at a single church. 

That's a significant bit of history to know because when it turns out Dean's only ever been on staff in communications at a single church that was the former Mars Hill it's all but impossible to not notice something like the following.

PR Matters: A Survival Guide for Church Communicators
Justin Dean
copyright (c) 2017 by Justin J. Dean. Published by DOXA Media Group, LLC
ISBN 0692862676

ISBN-13: 978-0692862674
from Chapter Ten, Crisis Planning

page 177
We were in a bit of a crisis mode when we realized the shooter at a local Christian school was a member of our church. The media never linked the story to us, but we went into crisis mode just in case they did. It would have been devastating had the headlines turned to "Local Church Member Shoots Up School."

it's impossible to think of more than, really, just one shooting incident at any place that could be described as being a Christian school in the Seattle area.  That would have been the 2014 shooting incident at Seattle Pacific University. You couldn't possibly just stroll into the Crawford Music Building these days to visit faculty and staff or practice some piano without getting security clearance to enter that building.  You don't have to really guess how I know this, do you? I haven't exactly made being an SPU alumni all that secret even if I don't normally mention it here. 

In order to fully appreciate this disclosure from Dean it may be helpful to know that his employer, Mars Hill Church, was already likely in crisis mode over the previous year for completely other reasons.  The June 5, 2014 shooting incident at Seattle Pacific University happened just a few months after the Mars Hill Board of Advisors and Accountability issued a statement in the wake of WORLD magazine reporting that Mars Hill had contracted with Result Source to secure a #1 place on the NYT bestseller list for Mark and Grace Driscoll's Real Marriage.

Driscoll was also embroiled in a controversy related to his books after a late 2013 on air conversation in which Janet Mefferd accused him of plagiarism.  Just a month before that fateful November 2013 conversation Mars Hill had a public relations debacle in the form of the Good for Bellevue online campaign on behalf of Mars Hill getting the International Paper Building, which had turned out to have been purchased by Sound Transit at least a month earlier.

In the context of a cumulative dumpster fire of successive public relations nightmares, if it were also discovered that a man who shot and killed at a Christian school in the Puget Sound area turned out to be a church member a certain church might have died even earlier than it did.


Ybarra has pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity.

Berliner described to jurors how Ybarra posed as a potential transfer student to scout the campus, twice visited a Lynnwood gun store to load up on birdshot and detailed in his journal his hatred for the world.

She said the state doesn’t contest that Ybarra “is mentally ill to some degree,” but noted he intentionally stopped therapy and medication to fuel his hate.

“Mentally ill is not legally insane,” she said. “We ask you to pay attention to the facts and the words the defendant used back then.”

It wasn’t until long after his arrest that Ybarra would claim he was suffering under a delusion that he was being commanded by God, she said. But in the shooting’s immediate aftermath, Ybarra told police detectives he was angry at what he perceived as disrespect from other people and felt “powerful” after committing the shootings, Berliner said.

“That’s why he wanted people to die — he wanted people to take him seriously,” she said.

Before Aaron Ybarra was sentenced to 112 years in prison, he named each of the victims — the freshman who was killed, the young woman who was critically wounded and the three students who managed to run away — of his June 2014 shooting at Seattle Pacific University.

“I’ve realized I’ve damaged more than just innocent people. I damaged the community and even the world. I’ve hurt a lot of people’s emotions. I wish I could take that away, but I can’t,” Ybarra, 29, said Friday. “I’m sorry to the world.”
During his trial last fall, jurors heard Ybarra’s anger at the world that prompted him to go off his medications, scout the campus and then return with a 12-gauge shotgun on the second-to-last day of classes, intent on killing as many people as he could. He had pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity.

The SPU shooting incident is literally the only shooting incident at a Christian school that comes to mind, and that was in 2014.  If Justin Dean or others are aware of some other shooting at a Christian school that can get clarified later.  And since it's been established by Dean's own history of his employment that he was on staff as communications leadership at Mars Hill Church and served in no staff capacity at a church be

.fore or since to date then "our church" seems like it could only have referred to an incident in which it was feared the press would discover that someone who shot people at a Christian school in the Puget Sound area was a member of ... Mars Hill Church. 

Mark Driscoll can go on the road and talk about lives changed but if it turns out that part of the Mars Hill Church history is that a member of that church went to Seattle Pacific University, shot and killed someone, and ended up pleading not guilty by way of insanity then that's part of Mark "I see things" Driscoll's legacy, too.  That, too, has to be considered part of the Mars Hill Church legacy if it turns out to be the case.

If it turns out to be the case then what good were those spiritual super-powers of discerning abuses after they allegedly happened (if they even happened) that Mark Driscoll shared in 2008, if it turned out Driscoll didn't even have sight clear enough to avoid a plagiarism controversy by putting the appropriate footnotes into his books in their first editions?  If Driscoll had the discernment he has claimed to have how did he manage to get embroiled in a plagiarism controversy to begin with, let alone the Result Source controversy?  Driscoll used to say headship means it's your responsibility as the man in charge even if it's not your fault.  If he ever took that principle of headship seriously then would an incident like a school shooting perpetrated by a church member not count? 

Most ironic of all, perhaps, is that had Justin Dean not mentioned working at a church where they feared the press would discover a guy who shot up a local Christian school was a church member, it's possible nobody would even be in a position to point out that the only church this could have been at was Mars Hill ,simply on the basis of the single church Justin Dean has established that he ever worked for. 

It's good to hear that nobody at Cross and Crown Church was harmed.  I'm not going to skip over the fact that I know people who are over there, even if I haven't seen them in a while.  I'm grateful nobody got hurt. 

POSTSCRIPT 11-21-2017

One of the things that is impossible to establish from Dean's anecdote is whether the person who shot up a Christian school was, in fact, verifiably a member of the church at the time of the incident.  In the case of Mars Hill someone might attend for years and never technically be a member but be recognized within the Mars Hill community.  Someone might be a member, allow membership to expire, and yet still attend for a time.  Which is to say that Dean's use of "member" is vague even if we can establish from Dean's own accounting of his professional history that he was never working as communications staff for any church but Mars Hill Church.

Another point for consideration is that within the history of Mars Hill Church leadership have been known to say things in hyperbolic ways or to exaggerate slightly for rhetorical and contextual effect.  Take, for instance, Mark Driscoll's 2006 sermon account of how Mars Hill Church acquired the West Seattle campus.  Be patient, there's a reason for all this subsequent detail.

Part 26: One Body, Many parts
1 Corinthians 12:12-26
Pastor Mark Driscoll
July 30, 2006

… In the meantime, we also picked up another miracle. This is West Seattle. This is on 35th at the top of the hill in West Seattle as you head toward White Center. I grew up in this neighborhood. This is a church building that is an absolute miracle. I’ll tell you the story on this space. I tried to launch Mars Hill Church in that building ten years ago, and we were rejected, and I’ve always wanted to be in there since. And what happened was, is we were growing. I went to Pastor Bill Clem, who was leading that congregation. He planted it for Acts 29 Church Planning Network [emphasis added], him and James Noriega, who is the other elder there and I said, “We’re maxed out. You got a fat building, 50,000 square feet, 1,000 seats.:” It’s a bigger building and the one you’re sitting in right now. I said, “Is there any way we to use it?” They said, “Well, we wanna reach as many people in West Seattle as possible. How about if we give it to you and work together?” we prayed about it for a second and said, “Yes.”

That is a $5 million gift. That is a $5 million gift, right? And I don’t know if you’ve been tracking the real estate market, people aren’t giving away a lotta real estate right now in Seattle and so we have – we’ve taken Pastor James and Pastor Bill on staff at Mars Hill. We have taken their members through the Gospel Class and they’re now members of Mars Hill. [emphasis added] They’ve been meeting as a core group over there. As we speak, there is $1.5 million of construction going on at the West Seattle campus, with the intention of opening in October in time for our ten year anniversary, and we want to expand over to West Seattle as well. We were thinking, “Well, we can borrow $8 million from the bank. We can spend $3 million and for $11 million, we can open up a 40,000 square foot location.” Well, we can now open more square feet for $1.5 million. So obviously, you take that opportunity.

The two cool aspects of this particular campus is one, is already zoned as a church, so we don’t need to fight use permits. We don’t have to bring it up to code. We can just walk in and use it immediately and it saves us, literally, a few years of permitting. Secondly, the lot that it is on is only zoned for 15,000 square feet of building and it already has 50,000 square feet, and because as grandfathered in, we could use it all. We could never build this building today as it exists.  And the cool thing with this building, a very Godly church that loved the Bible – started this church, built it, their denomination went liberal, dropped the doctrine of the inerrancy or perfection of Scripture and this building went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court and was the test case for who owns the church building, the congregation or the denomination. The congregation lost and these people actually bought their own building back, because they refused to drop the authority of Scripture as their value. [emphasis added] And so, there were some Godly older saints who paid for this building twice. It then went into decline but there is still a core of these people, like in their 70s and 80s, that are now members of Mars Hill. Grandmas tithing, waiting for us all to show up and fill that thing up again, and they’re praying us in. It’s a really cool God story and what God has done is pretty amazing.

The first thing to address out the gate is the Supreme Court case.  Was the property that was known as Doxa church involved in a case that went to the U. S. Supreme Court?  Well, Driscoll doesn't provide any meaningful background as to when this case might have been heard even at a local level, let alone gone to the United States Supreme Court.  He also doesn't mention whether the high court even agreed to hear the case.  

Hillcrest Presbyterian Church vs the Presbytery of America.

Well, the thing about Hillcrest Presbyterian is that if you look it up now here's what you'll probably find first:

10404 34th Avenue SW
Seattle, WA 98146

That's roughly a six minute drive from the property that is now Mars Hill West Seattle which is here:
7551 35th Avenue SW
Seattle, WA 98126

Okay, so if you look up Presbytery of America literally you won't find it.  You will find this, however.

PCUSA, for the folks who aren't actually Presbyterian, would be considered by Driscoll in all likelihood to have been a denomination that sold out on the inerrancy of scripture.. 

Here's a reference to this case hitting the Supreme Court of Washington from October 9, 1973. 

The case didn't actually get appealed to the United States Supreme Court until Apr 22, 1974 and the Supreme Court refused to hear the case.

The reason that's significant is because if you bothered to look up the case Driscoll seemed to be alluding to it only went up to the Supreme Court long enough to get shot down on the basis that the high court wasn't interested in appealing or overturning a ruling already made at the state level.  At the most basic level Driscoll had to fudge what it meant for a case to go "all the way up" to the Supreme Court.

If Justin Dean were put on the spot about whether or not Ybarra, who shot people at Seattle Pacific University in 2014, was ever a member or an attender of Mars Hill it's not clear that he could establish that that was the case.  More to the point, in the literary context of Chapter Ten, where Dean was emphasizing how it is important for a church to have a crisis plan ready for potential crises in public relations, the whole point of the story is more of a "here's a for instance" that is used to bolster "why" from a case study. 

The trouble is that if Dean was alluding to the Ybarra shooting incident then this suggests that things behind the scenes at Mars Hill were stranger and more chaotic than anyone had previously ventured to guess in public writing. 

Since only Ybarra fits the profile of a man shooting a Christian school adjacent Mars Hill in the Puget Sound area in the last few years Dean's anecdote, apparently given for rhetorical effect, raises more questions than can probably be answered.  It seems improbable that Dean intended the anecdote to inspire any public enquiry so it won't be a surprise if there are no answers.

If Ybarra were a member of Mars Hill there's no way to prove it but, on the other hand, had Justin Dean not made a point of claiming that there was a crisis at a church he worked for in which people feared the press would link a school shooter to the church, and went so far as to claim the shooter was a member, none of this would be up for consideration.

On the whole, Mars Hill's public reputation was at its peak in the early 2012 period up through a stadium Easter service.  Even then there were controversies but the cumulative reputational controversies Mars Hill had to deal with were not really to do with hostile coverage from secular or liberal media; the most significant scandals involved issues of intellectual property and its integrity and enforcement; the nature of fundraising activity and financial allocations; and the nature of who had governmental power and how much as distinct from disclosures about said power and its use and all these from within explicitly Christian media, media that was very often neither particularly liberal nor remotely secular.   

There's even an anecdote in Justin Dean's book where he seems to concede that how he handled a public PR campaign to get an already annexed building may have damaged the reputation of the church beyond repair.

Justin Dean
PR Matters, page 118

A reporter caught me off-guard and it threw a whole building campaign off the tracks. We might have been able to recover by doing another interview and explaining what happened. I certainly wanted to stay in the fight. Unfortunately, I didn't get the chance to even clarify my position because the prevailing decision was to move on. We were already under a lot of pressure at the time, and frankly it marked the beginning of us giving up on the future of the church.  ....

If this was a reference to the disastrous attempt on the part of Mars Hill Church to get the International Paper Building in Bellevue there was no chance of another attempt.  Sound Transit (not without its critics around here) had already obtained the International Paper Building about a month before Mars Hill set up the "Good for Bellevue" website/campaign.  The attempt to get that real estate was a lost cause before the website went up, from what's been reported on that incident in Puget Sound papers. 

What is more, given the history of Mars Hill acquiring a large property without even having the zoning issues worked out (the former corporate headquarters purchased in 2005, for instance), Justin Dean came to a Mars Hill that had already had a history of boondoggle real estate investments, whose leadership was not necessarily very good at scoping out good properties or being fully informed about zoning and usage issues before dumping money into a project.

If a reporter caught Justin Dean off guard and that tanked an entire building project what does that say about his experience and skill in handling public relations? 

It's remarkable, really, that Mars Hill went from peak influence in early 2012 to being a pile of organization cinders and rubble by the end of 2014.  I've never shied from saying that one of the most significant catalysts for the death spiral of Mars Hill Church's public reputation was simply how Justin Dean opted to handle one reputational crisis after another.  It's probably he handled things the way the people he worked for told him to handle things, perhaps, but the net result was the collapse of Mars Hill Church.  If Justin Dean wants to sell a book about how good public relations can help your church his track record so far is that he worked at one church and during his time there it went from being one of the fastest growing churches in America to one of the most remarkable church implosions in recent memory. In a way, Dean's book was informative, but not about public relations methods.  There's almost nothing in the book Dean published that you couldn't also hear from Mark Driscoll's own teaching about media exploitation.  On the other hand, there are anecdotes about crises behind the scenes that suggest that contrary to Dean's possible optimism, Mars Hill may have been even more doomed to fail than anyone previously thought.   

Saturday, November 18, 2017

MH Rainer Valley postlude, David Daniels article at Rapzilla about ex-MH pastor 50-track album, discusses his exit from ministry

For those who have read this blog a long time, even you might not recall that one of the topics we looked at was the short-lived pastoral stint of Willie Wilson.

You'll get a 404 error for this content if you try to follow the link but it was preserved in an earlier post here at Wenatchee The Hatchet. a donniehalbgewachs weebly entry indicated on January 27, 2013 that Willie Wilson was the new lead pastor for Mars Hill Rainier Valley.
January 27, 2013

Willie Wilson is the new lead pastor for Mars Hill Rainier Valley. Scripture is filled with "one another" statements such as: encourage one another, serve one another, love one another, and bear one another's burdens. That's what life in the church looks like. Pastor Willie has a passion and vision for building community in the name of Jesus. Find out more information on Mars Hill Rainier Valley.

In case you missed it, watch last month's Mars Hill Monthly and read about what Jesus did at our student camp.

What do you think about urban church planting?

that absence was first noted at Wenatchee The Hatchet in a comment

Anonymous said...
Lead pastor Willie Will from Rainier Valley Mars Hill left around 9/16. On 9/17 Mars Hill erased all links and content of him on there website and on the City.

In light of that comment, we took a look at the departure announcement.

For those who didn't read it at the time, here's a WayBack capture of Wilson's departure, announced in a blog post published August 5, 2013:

Running the race with duffel bags
“Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God.” Hebrews 12:1–2
Imagine this: You’re about to run your first marathon. You’re at the starting line with hundreds of other people who will be running with you. You’re wearing a hooded sweatshirt, jeans, boots, and a parka. You’re also carrying a duffel bag, a briefcase, a suitcase, and a bag of groceries. You look ridiculous, but you don’t want to run this race without all the things that you find comfort in.
The gun bangs and you’re off! Hundreds of runners take off and you’re running alongside them. You’re off to a great, quick start. But 100 yards in, you’re already drained, tired, and ready to quit. The other runners are gone ahead of you. You’re now dragging your feet. You want to give up . . . because you’re carrying too much to continue.

Suitcases stuffed with pride

A lot of times, we find ourselves in this very situation in our spiritual lives. We’ve started running the race of faith, but because of the load we’re carrying, we’re not running well. We’re shouldering unconfessed sin, secrets, and things we haven’t repented of but are holding on to. And it’s all weighing us down and holding us back. We’re carrying bags of guilt from past sin, backpacks filled with shame from sin that was committed against us, and suitcases stuffed with pride that keep from admitting that we’re tired and we need help. Jesus already carried our junk and nailed it to the cross, but for some reason, we choose to try and carry it anyway.

 Are you tired of running your race? Are you tired of serving? Tired of loving people? Tired of giving of your time, talent, and treasure? It’s probably because you are carrying some things that you shouldn’t be carrying while running a race. In Hebrews 12:1, we’re instructed to “lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us.” What are you carrying that you need to lay aside or cast off? When you’re not carrying a huge load, you’ll see that you have more stamina and endurance to run the race that has been set before you.

He’ll finish what he started

Verse 2 gives us our motivation for running the race in such a way to win the prize: “ . . . looking to Jesus . . . ”

This is a race of faith, and Jesus is both the founder and perfecter of it. This means that he is the starter and the finisher of it. He caused you to start this race by calling you to himself, saving you, and placing you in a loving family who will run alongside you, be there to help you up when you fall and when you hobble along all the way to the finish line. He will make sure you finish and he will make your faith perfect. Jesus is our example of how to run this race, because we see how he ran his race with endurance, enduring the cross. We were his prize, the “joy set before him.”

Run with all your might

Now as we run our race, he is our prize! He is the joy set before us!! At the finish line, we will see Jesus face to face. He will say, “Well done, my good and faithful servant. Enter into the joy of your Master” (Matt. 25:21, 23).

 Brothers and sisters, run your race with endurance, keeping your eyes on the prize. You’re not running alone, but with tons of witnesses on the sidelines.

 So run wholeheartedly, with all your might and all your strength, and when you finish the race, you will be able to speak the words of the Apostle Paul: “I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will award to me on that Day, and not only to me but also to all who have loved his appearing.”

At the time there was no explanation as to why Wilson had departed, though the text of the announcement leaned hard on duffel bags and the metaphor of baggage that keeps you from running the race. 

Mars Hill as a culture tended to reduce everything sinful, everything, to pride. I've written in the past about how I do think we can regard pride as a kind of stem cell for sin, that it can transform into any number of sins but that to treat those cells of sin as just being "pride" in some generic Mars Hill sense is damaging and dangerous.  To belabor the metaphor, if stem cells become a liver that has liver poisoning you won't help if you just say the problem is with what happened to the stem cells, man.   Treat the liver.  Not everyone has sins that are realized by pride in the same way.  Some people lie, some people still, some people commit adultery.  Mileage varies. 

By March 25, 2016 it looks like Wilson was willing to talk about how and why he was fired by Mars Hill.  I'm not going to quote from the entire article, though it's short, but I will highlight a couple of things.

David Daniels
Created: 25 March 2016 

 Willie Will released 78 tracks over four albums from 2006-2009 — including Reflection through Beatmart Recordings, a subsidiary of Sony Records — but he said none of it was Christ-centered. His music started to change after a friend invited him to Mars Hill in 2009 to serve with its worship team.  Mars Hill introduced him to reformed theology and pastors like Driscoll, John Piper and Paul Washer, who heavily influenced Willie Will and whose sermon snippets act as interludes on The GIFT. [WtH--no offense meant, but if folks want to go Reformed there are vastly better theologians to go with than Driscoll, Piper or Washer but I digress]

“I was not a theological dude at all,” Willie Will said. “I was listening to Paula White, T.D. Jakes, Joel Osteen — a lot of prosperity cats — so everything [Mars Hill] got me around, it’s really my first time hearing. But it’s blowing my mind as far as, I felt like I had been in church for so long, and I never heard of this stuff being preached. I had never heard so much about sin, the cross and the person and work of Jesus. You felt like, man, I’m kind of just now becoming a Christian.”

From this inspiration, Willie Will began to write the original version of The GIFT. He embraced what he learned so much that he also pursued pastoring, which Mars Hill paid for his schooling to do.  However, he admitted that he failed to apply his book smarts to his life.“My theology was changing. My mind was being changed. But my heart had not yet been changed,” Willie Will said. “My heart was set on becoming a pastor, rather than being a follower of Jesus and being a Christian and knowing and living out what that means.”


In 2012, Willie Will became the lead pastor of Mars Hill’s Rainier Valley campus. The following year, his wife informed church elders that he had committed adultery. [emphases added]

“I know I hurt so many people,” said Willie Will, who shared that he and his wife's marriage is still recovering, “people who trusted me as their leader, as their pastor, as their shepherd. I know they feel betrayed ... I was so riddled with guilt and covered by sin to where I just wanted to run. I just wanted to hide because I was so embarrassed. I felt every negative emotion to the point to where I felt hopeless.”


“I may never pastor again,” Willie Will, who's now an Apple Store technician, said, “but I do have a passion for the Gospel to see people changed by it because I was changed by it, because of what God did in me. I’m one who can say, ‘Look, I know the depths of sin, and I know the intenseness and the magnitude of God’s love in the Gospel.’ That’s what I want others to experience with [The GIFT], to see the magnitude of God’s love.”

So, fairly self-explanatory as these things go.  Frankly it's okay if men who were once pastors at Mars Hill do not pastor again.  There are a handful of men who served in pastoral ministry at Mars Hill who are still pastors and have shown themselves to be men I regard as actually fit for ministry, but I have to confess that number is pretty small.  I've mentioned one of those men at this blog enough times I probably don't need to explicitly name him. 

But what I want to highlight about what is shared in this brief story is that we see a man who was, by his own account, steeped in more of a prosperity Gospel before being exposed to teaching at Mars Hill that was different.  Now my friend Wendy Alsup and I have blogged about how inside the culture of Mars Hill there was a kind of secret prosperity Gospel but it was of a sort you couldn't have noticed from the formal preaching and teaching.  But in a sense the nature of that prosperity teaching can be inferred from cases where men who come into what they regard as a real Christian faith do so after arriving at Mars Hill and then find themselves fast-tracked into leadership.  For those unfamiliar with the history of Mars Hill 2009 was a pivotal year in educational terms, it was when Resurgence Training Center was announced and kicked off, back in the middle of 2009.

Mars Hill Church has started a school to serve as the leadership development engine for our global vision. As of August, the inaugural year of The Resurgence Training Center (Re:Train) is well underway.

What is Re:Train?

The purpose of the school is to train missional leaders to lead churches to transform cultures for Jesus. Our goal as a church is to start 100 new campuses and 1,000 new churches (in partnership with Acts 29) by 2019. In order to achieve this vision, we need as many men—trained and equipped—to be pastors and leaders within the movement. Pastor Mark Driscoll began The Resurgence a few years ago as a website with lots of free theological resources for missional leaders and the broader church in general. Re:Train is a further extension of this idea, offering premier missional leadership training and education.

What sort of classes does Re:Train offer?

Currently, Re:Train students participate in a yearlong graduate program that culminates in a Master of Missional Leadership. Participants are divided into "cohorts" based on area of interest. Once a month, all 75 students spend a weekend under the teaching of a nationally recognized professor. These classes are taught by men including John Piper, Bruce Ware, Gregg Allison, Ed Stetzer, Sam Storms, and Mars Hill Church Pastors Mark Driscoll and Bill Clem [emphases added]. Lord willing, beginning in the Fall of 2010, Re:Train will also offer university-style courses to equip the Mars Hill Church body in theology, biblical studies, missions, counseling, worship, biblical living, and other areas.

Who can attend Re:Train?

Re:Train participants come from all around the US and Canada. International students are expected next year, and our current student body includes a lot of Mars Hill leaders and members; we hope that many more will step up from within our community. Are you a future campus pastor? A future church planter? A faithful member who will be sent out as part of a core group to help start a new work? If you're interested in attending Re:Train in order to better prepare, we'll soon begin accepting applications for next year's graduate program (info at

Despite the fanfare the Resurgence Training Center had at most a couple of academic years and then seemed to just disappear.  Those people in the best position to explain how and why it failed may not be, and may never be, in a position to really explain what went on but when and if they are there's some chance they know who to get in touch with.

Mars Hill had a culture in which ambitious young men with lively Christian convictions felt called to be in leadership, and some not-so-young but still eager men who wanted to participate in what they regarded as a unique move of God.

One of the things that eventually came to light was that by the time Sutton Turner was looking at the books of Mars Hill financials in earlier 2012 he was concerned that the church was in a big mess.

We'll probably never know where all the money raised by and for Mars Hill Church over it's roughly twenty year run went, altogether, but the feature about Willie Will suggests that one of the things that was purchased by Mars Hill Church could include the education of some of its pastors, although the Rapzilla article didn't seem to mention where Wills education was, but then I might have missed that detail.

The most striking quote from Willie Will/Willie Wilson from the Rapzilla article is his mention that he was so set on becoming a pastor he had not set his heart on being a follower of Christ and understanding what that meant.  It seems tragic that he managed to receive a theological training while at Mars Hill paid for by Mars Hill and yet to go by what was publicly disclosed about the length of time he was formally a pastor at Mars Hill he was only a pastor for months before being removed. 

The more and more stories that are shared about people who were in the leadership culture of Mars Hill the harder it is to ignore that some men were fast-tracked into some kind of pastoral role within the leadership culture of Mars Hill who were relatively new Christians, either altogether or new to what they would identify as a serious evangelical form of faith.  Men who in a more traditional and tradition-minded Christian community would not be considered for pastoral service seemed able to get a green light within Mars Hill.  Back in 2006 when James Noriega was added to the Mars Hill leadership roster as a pastor reports of his second marriage and four felonies were a matter of public record thanks to the reporting of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and yet these did not seem to be red flags to anyone in the culture of Mars Hill leadership in 2006 that perhaps Noriega, though a brother in Christ, should not have been installed in a pastoral capacity then, or perhaps ever.  Informally it seems that Mars Hill culture prized entrepreneurial drive first and theological education second and character ... well ... consider Driscoll himself and what his own Board of Advisors and Accountability had to say about him.

But if Willie Will/Willie Wilson is working a standard day job and working on repairing his marriage rather than being a Mars Hill pastor or the Mars Hill kind of pastor, God bless him.  Of the many men who have come and gone through the ranks of Mars Hill pastorship there have been a handful I don't doubt have the heart of a shepherd.  I've been cumulatively proposing that Mars Hill Church as a corporate culture may be best described as a church culture in which elder qualification was viewed in terms of entrepreneurial drive and media savvy more than doctrinal fidelity or character.  Men were given roles for which they were not yet ready or possibly for which they would never be ready. 
One of the warnings Paul gave Timothy was that men appointed to being bishops should not be recent converts or they would be vulnerable to pride, becoming conceited and fall to condemnation incurred by the devil.  I have had doubts that Mars Hill leadership considered the real gravity of such a warning, give a recent convert of a man the responsibility and role of an overseer too quickly and to too recent a believer the man may become as conceited as a demon.   I've had enough people tell me I've got a cold-blooded arrogant streak that the last thing I'd ever want to be is a pastor.  I've never wanted to be a pastor anyway. 

So over the years Mark Driscoll has claimed he started too soon and too young, that he wished he could go back and do things differently.  Nobody familiar with the bulk of what he wrote and said in the 1990s and early 00s would get the impression he thought he started too young and too soon.  What's more, as stories about pastors who rose and fell within the mercurial Mars Hill system suggest, not only did Driscoll not seem to take seriously the implications of starting too soon for himself, there was a culture of leadership within Mars Hill that seemed able to reward those who leapt into the quest for a leadership role.  If a man like Willie Wills can look at himself and conclude he may never be fit to be a minister of the Gospel again after his sins that man may have more spiritual insight and appreciation of who he is in Christ than a guy more like Mark Driscoll. 

I wasn't planning to write about this or about Mars Hill this weekend but stuff sometimes comes up. The actual catalyst for writing about Mars Hill again was something else involving a recent arrest. 

"bigger than me" experiences, the crisis of of ecology, and thoughts on a film industry that plans to televise and dramatize the ecological apocalypse of which it has been a catalyst

A writer named Steven Tepper published a piece in the Chronicle of Higher Education back in 2014.
A decade ago, arts leaders faced a crisis in America. National data indicated significant declines in attendance at venues for virtually every art form—classical music, dance, theater, opera, jazz, museums. Bill Ivey, a former chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, and I offered a counternarrative in 2006: We saw a renaissance in creativity and cultural engagement, made possible, in part, by new technology. Guitar sales had tripled in the course of the decade; 25 percent of college students in one study indicated that they had produced their own music and posted it online. "Pro-ams" were on the rise—people who were not making money at their art but were part of robust creative and collaborative communities. More than 100 hours of content uploaded to YouTube every minute suggested the emergence of new forms of online creativity.
I now believe the pendulum has swung too far.
Much of the cultural activity we celebrated in 2006 could be categorized as "iCreativity," emphasizing personal expression, identity, individual customization, convenience, and choice. Too often that has turned into what I will call "me experiences." Market researchers call this the era of IWWIWWIWI (I Want What I Want When I Want It). In both culture and education, what we need are more "bigger-than-me experiences."

Might those bigger-than-me experiences be out there communing with nature?  Since I'm slogging through Adorno this year and can cross reference to Edmund Burke both of these guys wrote to the effect that nature and its beauty can be sublime because it hasn't killed you yet, but it totally could.  Adorno had a passage in Aesthetic Theory where he asserted (as he so often did!) that life in the town being so pedestrian and stifling was what made nature, by comparison, feel so transcendent and liberating.  People stuck out in the wilderness freezing or starving to death didn't tend to think of being out in the wilderness as some glorious experience.  A capacity to view the natural world as getting-in-touch-with-nature depends not on the natural world but on the powerful controls of environment within our urban existence.

That's not just a side track, it's an observation about how a "bigger than me" experience itself is mediated by other things.  You get to feel like you're part of a bigger world by being in the mountains and that's fun, but then you share how you were out in the mountains and had that bigger-than-you experience.  Whether a spiritual mountain-top experience or a literal mountain-top experience, we seem to live in a moment where when once you've posted the picture to social media or written a poem about it or shared it that's when it can be said to have "happened".  That may be the distillation of our cultural conundrum. 

Tepper is on to this aspect of contemporary culture and art, though, too and he brackets it within some surveys of how American high school students reported their self-perceptions:
Self-confidence is great, but not at the expense of considering others. A survey of high-school students that has been repeated for the past 60 years presents a startling picture. In 1950, 12 percent of students agreed with the statement, "I am a very important person." By 1990 that had risen to 80 percent. Other scholars have found that student scores on an index of empathy have been going down over the same period. Moreover, recent research in cognitive science suggests that media overload (often implicated in iCreativity) may reduce compassion, empathy, moral reasoning, and tolerance. For many young people, if they cannot insert themselves into an experience—capture it in what some observers call "life-catching"—and share it online with friends, then it is not worth the effort. [emphasis added]

Despite the fact that a few journalists these days invoke the Frankfurt School as somehow having anticipated the era of Trump (Alex Ross, for instance, comes to mind) I don't see people rushing to quote Adorno much.  It might be because if the sorts of folks who write for The New Yorker (or maybe even The Baffler) were to quote Adorno their own respective publications might come off badly.

Take this definition of philistinism:

Aesthetic Theory
Theodore Adorno
Copyright (c) 1997 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota

page 346
... Aesthetic experience first of all places the observer at a distance from the object. This resonates
in the idea of disinterested observation. Philistines are those whose relation to artworks is ruled by whether and to what degree they can, for example, put themselves in the place of the actors as they come forth; this is what all parts of the culture industry are based on and they foster it insistently in their customers. ...

Let's propose for the sake of weekend reflection that the culture industry does not just include mass media entertainment but the entire higher educational culture of the United States, too, educators and educated alike.  What education can ideally foster is a way for young people to stop being philistines in this Adornian definition of the term, people whose relation to artworks is ruled entirely by whether and to what degree they can put themselves or find themselves in the works they are watching.  The irony of Adorno's comment that such a mentality is the foundation of the culture industry and what the culture industry itself promotes is that if that's the case then the quest for representation in the arts and entertainment industry isn't a progressive impulse at all but the very embodiment of philistinism presented as a kind of progressive aspiration.  Then again, as I've read about the Frankfurt School it wasn't a surprise to discover Adorno considered the then nascent New Left to be as totalitarian in its aims and means as the actual fascists he encountered in Europe before emigration.  

I've started (and may not even finish) A. O. Scott's Better Living Through Criticism.  I have this nagging feeling that it's going to be a plea for the value of art religion in the form of art criticism religion but without being so formally labeled.  Then again, I'm getting the vibe from Adorno, too.  Dismantling bourgeois art religion doesn't mean an alternative has been set up.  Well, for Adorno that alternative was Marxism but Marxism itself can be thought of as the ultimate realization of the total work of art, depending on how you define the total work of art. 

I've been thinking about the religious devotion to art and entertainment we have in contemporary Western culture.  My friend James Harleman published a book years ago called Cinemagogue that I haven't reviewed here but hope to review one day--in that book and in his presentations on film he's pointed out that we have hundreds of films released each year in this country for an art form that's more or less barely over a century old.  Through in television and film into a single basket of cinematic entertainment and these stories are the stories we immerse ourselves in, often to medicate ourselves through narrative.  It was something Harleman said he realized he was doing in his younger years but that's something to save for some other post.  What he's proposed in his writing and speaking as that cinema and discussion of cinema has become a full-blown religious activity for contemporary Westerners but they often don't think of it as a religious devotion, but they can and do spend more hours binge-watching shows than they may spend in religious services or devoting themselves to the study of scripture. 

The trouble with film as the "bigger than me" experience is that it's an experience, yes, but it's also a product that you have to buy. I don't feel like linking to the list of attributed in the "bigger than me" experience table because it's pre-cooked in favor of BTM.  Instead, we'll get back to the piece:
"Me experiences" are different from "bigger-than-me experiences." Me experiences are about voice; they help students express themselves. The underlying question they begin with is, "What do I have to say?" BTM experiences are about insight; they start with, "What don’t I know?" Voice comes after reflection. Me experiences are about jumping into a project and making something—an idea, an artifact, a piece of media. BTM focuses on John Dewey’s notion of "undergoing"—making something happen in the world, which requires, first, a shift in our own subjectivity. We must anticipate problems, struggle with ideas, seek some resolution. It’s a process.
Me experiences aim at maximizing pleasure, rewards, and positive affect. Getting an A on an exam; getting a dozen "likes" on a Facebook or Instagram post; being the center of attention. On the other hand, bigger-than-me experiences pursue positive relations with others, feeling a sense of purpose, helping solve a collective problem. They also promote an attribute central to creativity: imagination. In me experiences, the ego shapes imagination, providing us with material to envision who we are and what we might become. BTM experiences help us develop our empathic imagination—putting ourselves in another’s shoes, adopting a different perspective, and trying to identify with a different place, time, or people.
If contemporary Western narcissism is as bad as this and other articles might suggest and if overpopulation and climate change are as serious matters as the film industry tends to agree it is why is there no crisis of faith in the legitimacy of film as an art form?  Think of all the cars, all the plastics, all the oil-derived products that have been involved in the history of film since its inception through to the present day.  Not just feature-length fictional narratives. Let's think about photographs. Let's think about instructional videos, let's think about everything at every stage of film-making that has made use of petroleum based products.

But let's suppose we were to try to implement a ban on the entire industry and culture of film for the sake of the ecological well-being of the planet.  That would be regarded as a despotic move and people could point out, with cause, that the film industry could be the fastest way the world of humanity could know that overpopulation and climate change are putting the planet and the fate of its humanity in peril.  Depending on what writers you read it's either already too late to forestall substantial climate change or the things we'd have to stop doing would be so onerous implementing the proposed changes would seem like an attack on Western civilization itself to go by conservative responses I've seen off and on over the last twenty years.

Sometimes it can seem as though the industrial revolutions shouldn't have happened.   Here we are a thousand years on from a Catholic cleric or two worrying that the unwashed masses need to reproduce as little as possible to prevent systemic food shortages and overpopulation.  Then the Black Death hit and Europe had a population gut.  If the bromide in Jurassic Park was "life finds a way" a counterpoint to all of that would be death finds a way, too.

There have been years where it seems that the best minds in Western civilization are freaking out about the pending doom of the human race that has been brought about by centuries of the secondary effects of innovations brought about by the best minds in Western civilization.  While it's easy for secularists to lament that the Abrahamic religions ruined everything there was a political movement that emphatically believed that the Abrahamic religion that started them all was a problem that had to be given a final solution.  We all know that story and how it played out.  There's no sustained and systematic critique of the negative influence of the entire range of Abrahamic religions that won't eventually Godwin itself at this point, if the sum of the influence of the Abrahamic religions can only be cast in negative rather than mixed terms you've Godwined yourself out of being taken seriously on moral grounds.

But the problem I've seen in the worries about overpopulation and food and clean water shortages and climate change that no amount of contraception can ultimately alleviate is the question as to when and how the survivability of the entire human race has to be considered more important than the dignity and value of individual human lives.  It's as though Western civilization is terrified that if the rest of the world catches up to participation in the Western way of life the entire planet will be doomed and humanity will live a collective life not worth living.

Does this lead the West to repudiate everything that defines Western living here and now?  No ... population control seems to be more about making sure all the wrong sorts of people don't breed too much and that we shift the nature of our consumption to renewable energy without questioning the nature of the consumption itself.  Running water, electricity and smart phones are not human rights.  They're great to have, to be sure, but I sometimes wonder what Westerners have come to define as human rights are standards of Western consumption options standards. 

This has been on my mind since the release of mother!, which I still haven't seen and honestly never even plan to see.  If Aronofsky and others are concerned to make films depicting how our way of life is destroying the earth and leading to a catastrophe that will wipe out much of humanity then why make film?  Isn't there a point at which telling us that the Western consumer way of life is going to decimate the global biome is the more ethical approach than trying to show us by way of an arthouse film that bombed at the box office and divided film critics and got beaten out in box office returns by a Hasbro derived film (whether My Little Pony or Transformers: The Last Night).

The irony of this last mentioned film is that for forty years the whole Transformers franchise has run on the idea that the Autobots and Decepticons are pitched in battle over who will gain access to and/or control the resources of the planet earth in a bid to revive the dead planet of Cyberton.  If Optimus Prime were to give a speech about how the planet earth has not enough resources for even the flesh and blood species it couldn't have the resources that would be needed to revive an entirely robotic population such as used to exist on Cyberton. 

Byand large film critics can't even be bothered to familiarize themselves enough with the Transformers franchise to get that even this apparently mammoth and often very stupid franchise had at its robotic heart an obsession with battle over resource control and resource scarcity.  Megatron's view is that any and all resource extraction, no matter how mercenary, is worth the trouble if it revitalizes Cyberton. Optimus Prime, believing freedom is the right of all sentient beings, insists that the earthlings should be given the right of refusal on issues of helping Autobots.  As bad as the Bay-formers films have been all across the board, remarkably, the story of the two robot teams battling over the fate of the Earths' natural resources as a parable about the consumption trends of contemporary Western civilization has remained quite durable.  Optimus Prime will pay any price and bear any burden to keep Megatron and his associates from strip-mining the entire planet of every resource that could revitalize robot sentience at the expense of flesh and blood life.

Despite the fact that the Michael Bay Transformers franchise has grossed billions of dollars in worldwide ticket sales film critics just keep talking about how stupid and mindless the franchise is and how incoherent the plots are.  There are surely problems with the formal plotting done in the Transformers franchise!  But the floundering of mother! at the box office the Transformers franchise success (against all better judgment) Over the last forty years this franchise has stayed on point about two groups battling over how to deal with the consequences of a world they have doomed through their own war on consumption by way of bringing that battle to our world as a blunt parable about what we're doing with our planet.  The longevity of the franchise against mainstream critical judgment could be a testimony to how bad the franchise is, but an additional possibility is that Transformers as a brand taps into something more axiomatic about human nature and a subject like global behavior-modified climate change, there may be a point at which you'd better tell rather than show what you're getting at.  Aronofsky's mother! tried to show but baffled and bewildered even film critics. When Optimus Prime tells us our planet is in peril there's no mistaking what he's getting at, whether in the films themselves or the world full of us humans who watched him talk in those films.