Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Theodor Adorno and Roger Scruton--how the most famous conservative philosopher on the aesthetics of music basically agreed with the Marxist forerunner of critical theory from the Frankfurt school on why pop songs fell short of the art of sonatas


In the wake of Roger Scruton’s passing it might be tempting for those on the conservative side to note what a dedicated opponent of Marxism Scruton was while those on the progressive or left or liberal sides (none of which I personally find able to view as equivalent or commensurate) may note that Scruton softened his views but that his views were, in the end, rejections of the idea that inequality could be eliminated. 

It’s important to consider which ideas a philosopher budges on and why when assessing a philosopher’s legacy.  I think a case can be made that Roger Scruton’s assessment of popular musical styles and forms was ultimately little different in terms of his negative assessment of pop as Theodore Adorno’s was throughout his own career.  That one of the more famous anti-Marxist conservative philosophers laid out an argument for the limitations of jazz and popular music which merely recapitulates arguments made previously by one of the more famous Marxists, Adorno, who was a founding thinker in critical theory is any irony that can’t be overstated. 

As decades passed Scruton regarded jazz as an actual form of musical art, a point that Adorno was reluctant, to put it discreetly, to agree with. 

That Adorno and Scruton made a common argument as to why jazz and popular song fell short of the art in “serious music” is not difficult to establish from what the two men wrote.  Since Scruton’s legacy of writing critically about pop so post-dates Adorno, let’s start with Adorno first.  Rather than draw upon Adorno’s more infamous piece “On Jazz” I want to shift toward his post-US stay writings because it is in these later writings he was better able to articulate the kinds of arguments that we shall see, at length, were basically replicated by Scruton.

Introduction to the Sociology of Music
Theodore W Adorno
Seabury Press
ISBN 0-8164-92662-2

pages 21-22
...
Conversely, as long as the objective spirit was not yet wholly planned and steered by administrative centers, the higher art would recall the extent to which its own principle involved injustices to the many. Time and again it felt the need of something else, of something that would resist the formative esthetic will and that might serve as the touchstone of that will-and so, whether unintentionally or intentionally, it would absorb elements of the lower music. Some of this shows in the old custom of parody, of setting spiritual texts to profane melodies. Bach did not shrink from borrowing from below even in his instrumental works, as in the Quodlibet of the "Goldberg Variations," and neither Haydn nor the Mozart of The Magic Flute or Beethoven would be conceivable without an interaction of what by then were separated spheres. [emphasis added] The last instance of their reconciliation, utterly stylized and teetering as on a narrow mountain by pass, was The Magic Flute-an instant still mourned and longed for in such structures as Strauss and Hofmannsthal's Ariadne auf NaxosThere were times far into the nineteenth century when it was possible to write decent popular music. Its esthetic decay is as one with the irrevocable and irrelative dissociation of the two realms. [emphasis added]


page 26
... The higher music's relation to its historical form is dialectical. It catches fire on those forms, melts them down, makes them vanish and return in vanishing. Popular music, on the other hand, uses the types as empty cans into which the material is pressed without interacting with the forms. Unrelated to the forms, the substance withers and at the same time belies the forms, which no longer serve for compositional organization. [emphasis added]

page 33
The social function of jazz coincides with its history, the history of a heresy that has been received into the mass culture. Certainly, jazz has the potential of a musical breakout from this culture on the part of those who were either refused admittance to it or annoyed by its mendacity. Time and again, however, jazz became a captive of the culture industry and thus of musical and social conformism [emphases added]; famed devices of its phases, such as "swing," "bebop," "cool jazz,"  are both advertising slogans and marks of that process of absorption. Popular music can no more be exploded from within, on its own premises and with its own habituated means, than its own sphere points beyond it.

The modular construction of a pop song and the recursive repetition of the core chart chords in jazz were commensurate with an age and society of mass production. There was a dialectical relationship between “high” and “low” music that, in the era of monopoly capitalism, Adorno asserted had broken apart.  This rupture between “serious” and “light” music was not simply at the level of the means of production, it also involved a parallel break in the modes of cognition which were used to both produce and perceive “serious” and “light” music.  Adorno would expand upon his criticism of popular music in Current of Music.  There was a distinction to be made between serious music and light classical music and popular song.  Adorno described that difference as follows:

Essays on Music: Selected, with introduction, commentary and notes by Richard Leppert; new translations by Susan H. Gillespie
Theodor Adorno
University of California Press
ISBN 0-520-22672-0
ISBN 0-520-23159-7
(c) 2002 by Regents of University of California


From “On Popular Music”, which is also published in Adorno’s Current of Music.
pages 439-440
Serious music, for comparative purposes, may be thus characterized:  Every detail derives its musical sense from the concrete totality of the piece which, in turn, consists of the life relationship of the details and never of a mere enforcement of a musical scheme. For example, in the introduction of the first movement of Beethoven's Seventh Symphony the second theme (in C major) gets its true meaning only from the context. Only through the whole does it acquire its particular lyrical and expressive quality--that is, a whole built up of its very contrast with the cantus firmus-like character of the first theme. Taken in isolation the second theme would be disrobed to insignificance. [emphasis added] Another example may be found in the beginning of the recapitulation over the pedal point of the first movement of Beethoven's Apassionata. By following the preceding outburst it achieves the utmost dramatic momentum. By omitting the exposition and development and starting with this repetition, all is lost.

Nothing corresponding to this can happen in popular music. It would not affect the musical sense if any detail were taken out of the context; the listener can supply the "framework" automatically, since it is a mere musical automatism itself. The beginning of the chorus is replaceable by the beginning of innumerable other choruses. The interrelationship among the elements or the relationship of the elements to the whole would be unaffected.  In Beethoven, position is important only in a living relation between a concrete totality and its concrete parts. In popular music, position is absolute. Every detail is substitutable; it serves its function only as a cog in a machine.  [emphases added]

 ...

page 441

To sum up the difference: in Beethoven and in good serious music  in general--we are not concerned here with bad serious music which may be as rigid and mechanical as popular music--the detail virtually contains the whole and leads to the exposition of the whole, while, at the same time, it is produced out of the conception of the whole. In popular music the relationship is fortuitous. The detail has no bearing on a whole, which appears as an extraneous framework. Thus, the whole is never altered by the individual event and therefore remains, as it were, aloof, imperturbable, and unnoticed throughout the piece. [emphasis added] At the same time, the detail is mutilated by a device which it can never influence and alter, so that the detail remains inconsequential. A musical detail which is not permitted to develop becomes a caricature of its own potentialities.

pages 441-442

The previous discussion shows that the difference between popular and serious music can be grasped in more precise terms than those referring to musical levels such as "lowbrow and highbrow," "simple and complex," "naive and sophisticated." For example, the differences between the spheres cannot be adequately expressed in terms of complexity and simplicity.  All works of the earlier Viennese classicism are, without exception, rhythmically simpler than stock arrangements in jazz.  Melodically, the wide intervals of a good many hits such as "Deep Purple" or "Sunrise Serenade" are more difficult to follow per se than most melodies of, for example, Haydn, which consist mainly of circumscriptions of tonic triads, and second steps.  Harmonically, the supply of chords of the so-called classics is invariably more limited than that of any current Tin Pan Alley composer who draws from Debussy, Ravel, and even later sources.  Standardization and non-standardization are the key contrast terms for the difference. [emphases added]

Structural standardization aims at standard reactions. [emphasis original] Listening to popular music is manipulated not only by its promotors but, as it were, by the inherent nature of this music itself, into a system of response mechanisms wholly antagonistic to the ideal of individuality in a free, liberal society. This has nothing to do with simplicity and complexity. In serious music, each musical element, even the simplest one, is "itself," and the more highly organized the work is, the less possibility there is of substitution among the details. In hit music, however, the structure underlying the piece is abstract, existing independent of the specific course of the music.  This is basic to the illusion that certain complex harmonies are more easily understandable in popular music than the same harmonies in serious music. For the complicated in popular music never functions as "itself" but only as a disguise or embellishment behind which the scheme can always be perceived. [emphasis added]In jazz the amateur listener is capable of replacing complicated rhythmical or harmonic formulas by the schematic ones which they represent and which they still suggest, however adventurous they appear. The ear deals with the difficulties of hit music by achieving slight substitutions derived from the knowledge of the patterns. The listener, when faced with the complicated, actually hears only the simple which it represents and perceives the complicated only as a parodistic distortion of the simple. 

No such mechanical substitution by stereotyped patterns is possible in serious music.  Here even the simplest event necessitates an effort to grasp it immediately instead of summarizing it vaguely according to institutionalized prescriptions capable of producing only institutionalized effects. Otherwise the music is not "understood."  Popular music, however, is composed in such a way that the process of translation of the unique into the norm is already planned and, to a certain extent, achieved within the composition itself.

The composition hears for the listener. This is how popular music divests the listener of his spontaneity and promotes conditioned reflexes. Not only does it not require his effort to follow its concrete stream; it actually gives him models under which anything concrete still remaining may be subsumed.  The schematic build-up dictates the way in which he (page 443) must listen while, at the same time, it makes any effort in listening unnecessary.  Popular music is "predigested" in a way strongly resembling the fad of "digests" of printed material. It is this structure of contemporary popular music, which in the last analysis, accounts for those changes of listening habits we shall later discuss. [emphases added]

page 462

Hollywood and Tin Pan Alley may be dream factories. But they do not merely supply categorical wish-fulfillment for the girl behind the counter.  She does not immediately identify herself with Ginger Rogers marrying. What does occur may be expressed as follows: when the audience at a sentimental film or [hearing] sentimental music become aware of the overwhelming possibility of happiness, they dare to confess to themselves what the whole order of contemporary life ordinarily forbids them to admit, namely, that they actually have no part in happiness. What is supposed to be wish-fulfillment is only the scant liberation that occurs with the realization that at last one need not deny oneself the happiness of knowing that one is unhappy and that one could be happy. The experience of the shop girl is related to that of the old woman who weeps at the wedding services of others, blissfully becoming aware of the wretchedness of her own life. Not even the most gullible individuals believe that eventually everyone will win the sweepstakes. The actual function of sentimental music lies rather in the temporary release given to the awareness that one has missed fulfillment.

The emotional listener listens to everything in terms of late romanticism and of the musical commodities derived from it which are already fashioned to fit the needs of emotional listening. They consume music in order to be allowed to weep. They are taken in by the musical expression of frustration rather than by that of happiness.  The influence of the standard Slavic melancholy typified by Tchaikovsky and Dvorak is by far greater than that of the most "fulfilled" moments of Mozart or of the young Beethoven.  The so-called releasing element of music is simply the opportunity to feel something. But the actual content of this emotion can only be frustration. Emotional music has become the image of the mother who says, "Come and weep, my child." It is catharsis for the masses, but catharsis which keeps them all the more firmly in line. One who weeps does not resist any more than one who marches.  Music that permits its listeners the confession of their unhappiness reconciles them, by means of this "release", to their social dependence. [emphasis added]

page 468

... we cannot content ourselves with merely stating that spontaneity has been replaced by blinded acceptance of the enforced material. Even the belief that people today react like insects and are degenerating into mere centers of socially conditioned reflexes, still belongs to the facade. Too well does it serve the purpose of those who prate about the New Mythos and the irrational powers of community. Rather, spontaneity is consumed by the tremendous effort which each individual has to make in order to accept what is enforced upon him--an effort which has developed for the very reason that the veneer veiling the controlling mechanisms has become so thin. In order to become a jitterbug or simply to "like" popular music, it does not by any means suffice to give oneself up and to fall in line passively. To become transformed into an insect, man needs that energy which might possibly achieve his transformation into a man. [emphasis added]

It hardly needs to be said this is a harsh assessment of popular music and of jazz.  Although Adorno in his later writing could grant that the most accomplished jazz musicians displayed real skill and talent his argument that popular music as a whole was a product of the culture industry incapable of rising to the level of serious music as an art form did not shift much.  In his later writings he had comparably harsh things to say about rock:

Aesthetic Theory
Theodore Adorno
Copyright (c) 1997 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota
Continuum
ISBN 0-8264-6757-1

pages 319-320

The demise of art, which is today being proclaimed with as much glibness as resentment, would be false, a gesture of conformism. The desublimation, the immediate and momentary gain of pleasure that is demanded of art, is inner-aesthetically beneath art; in real terms, however, that momentary pleasure is unable to grant what is expected of it. The recently adopted insistence on culturing uncultivation, the enthusiasm for the beauty of street battles, is a reprise of futurist and dadaist actions. The cheap aestheticism of short-winded politics is reciprocal with the faltering of aesthetic power. Recommending jazz and rock-and-roll instead of Beethoven does not demolish the affirmative lie of culture but rather furnishes barbarism and the profit interest of the culture industry with a subterfuge. The allegedly vital and uncorrupted nature of such products is synthetically processed by precisely those powers that are supposedly the target of the Great Refusal: These products are the truly corrupt. [emphasis added]

Shifting from Beethoven to the Beatles would do nothing at all to attenuate or weaken the power of the culture industry.  No amount of imputing radical or critical political discourse onto a style like rock or punk or any form of music derived from Anglo-American standardized music was going to change the totalitarian mass-produced tendencies that Adorno perceived in popular music as it evolved in the last century. 

Neither did Adorno, later in life, concede that tonality was no longer “spent”.  Despite his scathing criticisms of John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen, Adorno did not concede as Arnold Schoenberg did that there was still good music to be written in the key of C major.  While Adorno could summon praise for Edgar Varese and Gyorgy Ligeti (and I admit I enjoy some of their music), his stance against tonality remained firm:

Essays on Music: Selected, with introduction, commentary and notes by Richard Leppert; new translations by Susan H. Gillespie
Theodor Adorno
University of California Press
ISBN 0-520-22672-0
ISBN 0-520-23159-7
(c) 2002 by Regents of University of California

Difficulties (1967)

page 648

The methods that are linked to the traditional language of music have become retrospectively problematic as a result of those that were discovered later--namely, they have become schematic. [emphasis added] One hears, through what is newer, weaknesses of the old that were once hidden. There are very many things that sound stereotyped that were not stereotyped at the time. Richard Wagner, who was very alert in these matters, already registered this. Disrespectfully, but forthrightly, he said that in some of Mozart's pieces he could hear the dishes clatter on the table--Tafelmusik, even when it was by no means intended as such. It was possible to follow this schema as long as it was not evident as such, as long as it was still of a piece with the self-evident preconditions of composing. But once composing, and the relationship of the composer to the schemas, has lost its virginity, then the schemas not only emerge baldly and annoyingly, but lead in many places to anomalies, contradict the moments that have meanwhile been emancipated. [emphasis added]...

... The person who commits himself to what is older only out of despair at the difficulties of the new is not comforted, but becomes the victim of his own helpless nostalgia for a better era that, finally, never actually existed.

On the other hand, one should not dispense with reactionary objections in the manner of an apologist, but should learn the measure of correct insights that they offer, which so frequently give them the advantage over moderate, progressive cultural liberalism. [emphasis added]...

Adorno’s last quote which I have quoted is interesting for what he specifically said, that we should not dispense with the objections of reactionaries in the manner of an apologist but we should learn the measure of correct insights they have to offer.  Why?  The objections of the reactionaries about the arts frequently give them an advantage over moderate progressive cultural liberalism.  It would seem, then, that the counsel of Adorno was that we should learn the measure of correct insights offered by a reactionary.  If Roger Scruton can be considered a reactionary and not just a conservative then what criticisms of contemporary post-tonal music and popular music did Scruton write?

Understanding Music: Philosophy and Interpretation
Roger Scruton
Continuum
Copyright (c) Roger Scruton 209

page 211, "Why Read Adorno?"
... his attack on mass culture should be seen in the Old Testament spirit, as a repudiation of idolatry, a reaffirmation of the age-old distinction between true and false gods--between worship that ennobles and redeems us, and the superstition that drops us in the ditch. ... 

page 216

One conclusion to draw from the history of American popular music is that we should take the world "popular" seriously--far more seriously than it was taken by Adorno. [emphasis added] Pace Adorno and Horkheimer, this music was not imposed upon the American people by an unscrupulous `culture industry' eager to exploit the most degenerate aspects of popular taste. It arose `by an invisible hand' from spontaneous music-making, with a large input from Afro-American music, both secular and religious. When that music later spread around the world it was not by some imperial venture of a conquering civilization but by the same process whereby it arose--the spontaneous taste of ordinary people. [emphasis added]

pages 216-217

The great days of American popular music may now be past: rock `n roll changed the Blues from a lyrical confession to a Dionysian display, and the long-term effects are now being felt, not only in America, but all across the world.  Nevertheless, visitors to America are still astonished by the number of spontaneous musical episodes that they encounter: marching bands at football matches; barber shop singing; church choirs and `praise dances'; jazz combos in the clubs and Blue Grass in the tavern.  ...  

... The American song exists because people have enjoyed it and asked for more. It is the musical expression of consumer sovereignty. And like everything typical of America it gets up the intellectual nose, precisely because it seems to leave no opening for the would-be priesthood. Intellectuals on the left have never been able to accept that the spontaneous choices of ordinary people might be the final explanation of their social world.  ... 

page 219
It is undeniable that this musical tradition is full of kitsch and false sentiment. But there is another way besides Adorno's of looking at that fact. The American popular song arose from the spontaneous desire of ordinary Americans to celebrate the world that they themselves had created.  It has never been a critical idiom, any more than the folk-music of old Europe was critical. It takes America as it comes, and its lyricism is a lyricism of acceptance. Kitsch is there in the music because kitsch lies all around. If this music were to make an effort to eliminate kitsch and false sentiment it would not be seeing through lies but telling them. [italics original, bold added] There is a kind of realism here, to which Adorno closed his ears, just as he closed his mind to the real function of song in the life of ordinary people--which is to help them to be at one with their social condition, and to normalize their sufferings and their joys.  As their social conditions change, so do their songs ...


page 223
Adorno's defense of the avant-garde of his day was based on the view that `standardization' could not take root in this idiom, which would always question its own status as a commodity and refuse to be driven by aesthetic routines.  But the routines soon arose and, from the tin-cans of John Cage to the bombastic operas of Stockhausen, the musical landscape today is strewn with avant-garde kitsch.

Having discussed Adorno’s scathing criticisms of Stockhausen, Boulez, American serialism and John Cage’s aleatoric reaction in some detail elsewhere; I don’t wish to dwell on what I regard as Scruton’s somewhat lazy engagement with the full range of Adorno’s commentary on post-tonal modernist styles.  That Adorno made even more trenchant criticisms of Cage and Stockhausen in 1967 than Scruton made throughout his career should be a warning to contemporary conservatives that in the midst of worrying about cultural Marxism it’s not merely possible for conservatives to seemingly unknowingly repeat the criticisms a Marxist (namely Adorno) made of the mid-20th century avant garde, it has been something of a cottage industry fashion to repeat Adorno’s argument minus both Adorno’s Marxism and giving him any credit for having criticized Cage and Stockhausen first.

If Adorno turned against the post-tonal avant garde as he saw its advocates turning to what he regarded as more inhuman and technocratic methods pursued for the sake of method (a criticism that was echoed by Jacques Ellul), Scruton shifted toward a more generous view of the possibilities of popular song as a rejuvenator of tonality.  Scruton, at length, could not continue rejecting popular song as incapable of being a musical art the way Adorno seemed to.  But let’s notice that Scruton, in considering what he saw as the weaknesses of jazz and popular song, was still taking up what we saw of Adorno’s complaint about the standardization and modular construction of pop songs and the recursive schemata of jazz:

page 224

Adorno argued that the addiction to musical fetishes--by which he means the standardized effects of popular music--produces a `regression' in the art of listening, what we might today call a shrinking attention span. People are content with snippets that they can hum or whistle, and--thanks to mechanical reproduction--will listen to a movement, a tune or a bar detached from the work to which it owes its significance. Inevitably, therefore, the old art of listening, which involves following a complex development over long stretches of time, gives way to an interest in catchy fragments, shortened sequences that can be detached from their context and repeated at will. And it is just such fragments, Adorno implies, that become clichés, which the ear of the listener and the mind of the composer prefer to the hard work of harmonic and melodic argument.

Now Adorno has a point here ... Whatever we think about tonality, there is no doubt that it has lent itself to a new kind of music, in which the lengthy paragraphs of the symphonic tradition have been replaced by the repetition of statically conceived cells--as in the ballets and symphonies of Stravinsky. The architecture of a Beethoven or Bruckner symphony, in which the modulation from tonic to dominant might take place over a span of minutes, and in which every scale degree is conscripted to the task of transporting the material from one solid foundation to the next--this wonderful art-form is less and less present in the tonal writing of modern composers, and the `developing variations' which Schoenberg discerned in the classical style and sought to revive through his serial language are now rarely encountered. The American popular song deploys the tonal language in a manner that is short-breathed and quickly exhausted; and the idiom of jazz, which has taken tonality in a new direction, and discovered harmonic sequences and dissonant cadences which have no place in the classical repertoire, has not produced any comparable expansion of the musical argument. On the contrary, where there should be development there is usually only improvisation, and where there might be the exploration of emotion and the building of character, there is usually the repetition of the same cheerful smile.  

page 225
... Something is right in what Adorno is saying. But all attempts to pin down the thesis come up against the immovably singular nature of aesthetic judgement.  And the failure of Adorno to produce any prescription, other than his entirely negative advocacy of atonality against the tonal cliché, leaves the matter hanging in the air.  

page 226

In the light of this it seems to me that we should retrace our steps and revisit the attempts by composers to learn from the example of song--both folk song and the jazz-influenced songbook. Although this means a return from large-scale forms to the strophic idiom of natural music, it also involves a return to the crucible of tonality, in which the tonal order is first crystallized in the soup of sound. [emphasis added] That, it seems to me, is the direction taken by Debussy; and he was followed by Janacek, Dutilleux, Britten, Messiaen and many more--brilliant musicians who were led by their ears and not by theories, even if they were capable, like Messiaen, of theorizing at the highest level.  ...

In the long run Roger Scruton budged more in recognizing that popular song had virtues, if perhaps partly in reaction to what he regarded as the inhuman and inhumane technocratic tendencies of the post-Schoenberg post-tonal schools of music.  I have my own reasons for thinking Scruton was less generous to Americans rejecting what they saw as a repressive and oppressive legacy from German idealism in American music education than he could have been but it’s not because I don’t adore the music of, for instance, Haydn and J. S. Bach. 

Even with Scruton’s affirmation that jazz and the American songbook had given the world real musical art Scruton was on the same side as Adorno when it came to answering the question of whether or not those popular songs were compatible with the “argument” of sonata forms. I recognize this observation may be a point that is only salient to musicians but I’m making it anyway, it can be too easy for non-musicians who may align themselves with a Scruton or an Adorno on ideological grounds to amplify the differences between the two philosophers so as to not see where they strongly agreed.  If Roger Scruton was a reactionary for thinking American popular song was not compatible in terms of its substance with sonatas or fugues then Adorno was a reactionary and was a reactionary despite being a Marxist.  Surely this should suggest to us that such a reductionist reading of either Adorno or Scruton will not do justice to either the best or even the worst of what they said and wrote. 

That they both regarded the vocabulary of jazz in particular and popular song more generally as incompatible with the “argument” and formal developmental syntax of “serious music” is, in my estimation, a shared failure.  Both men could be thought of as being too beholden to the legacy of what scholars have called “the long nineteenth century”.  One of the apostates of serialism Scruton has invoked was the American composer George Rochberg and it has been striking to consider the ways in which Scruton presented Rochberg as returning to tonality.  I am not so sure I agree but I find it interesting that when Scruton set out to find an example of a composer who repudiated the dead ends of post-tonal modernism he settled on a particular American composer:

...
Our model for the future should therefore not be the sterile works of Stockhausen and Boulez but the patient attempts to adapt the old to the new, and to find notes that touch the hearts of listeners because they express the heart of their composer. George Rochberg's music points us in this direction. But it raises the question that surely troubles all serious music-lovers now, which is whether we can find our way to a musical syntax which is as expressive as the tonal language of Rochberg, but which is not shut off from the surrounding world of popular culture. This is the theme to which I shall address myself in the next post.

It is also interesting to see that in invoking Rochberg Scruton used the American composer as a potential model for finding a way “to a musical syntax which is as expressive as the tonal language of Rochberg, but which is not shut off from the surrounding world of popular culture.”  Bridging a gap between “serious music” and popular culture was not, as we’ve seen, a priority in even the later writings of Adorno.  Let’s say for a moment that Adorno and Scruton were philosophers who were committed political ideologues and who venerated Western music ranging from J. S. Bach up through Mahler into the age of Bartok, Stravinsky, Schoenberg and others.  Both philosophers made early stands against what they regarded as the formulaic, vapid and enervating qualities of popular song.  In the long run Scruton flinched where Adorno did not and the reason, as Scruton told us in book after book in the last decade, came down to recognizing that popular songs might be full of kitsch but there was no aesthetic judgment requiring a person to ignore a memorable tune.  Scruton conceded Adorno’s point about American pop songs being full of kitsch and made a counter-proposal, that kitsch tells us something truer about the cultures we have been living in than the truth Adorno heard in the music of Schoenberg. 

Generations of critical theory scholars have been squeamish about Adorno’s lacerating attacks on jazz and popular music with cause.  Adorno can come across like he was a racist elitist.  It is not, necessary to state, let alone imply (as Scruton swiftly did) that Adorno’s criticism of jazz was predicated on a more general criticism of tonality.  Adorno was clear enough that the issue was not as simple as the schematic nature of tonality.  Were Adorno alive today he could point out that a I-V-vi-IV power ballad by a Lewis Capaldi is a musical and textual fraud regardless of the faux-sincerity of the pop star’s crooning.  The issue is how mass-produced and mass-directed the music is for a mass audience in a mass industry.  Adorno would not have consented to Scruton’s concession that perhaps kitsch is true in a way and that kitsch in song does not preclude that song being art.  Forty years since Star Wars and some ten movies later the monomyth is arguably the most potent formula to pander to all those Adorno regarded as philistines that the culture industry he rejected could have possibly come up with.  

In many respects even conservatives would now probably simply say that Adorno was right and that contemporary popular culture proves Adorno was right but they would not for one second grant a corollary concession to a Marxist critique of mass culture.  Adorno, for his part, could not concede that the Soviet Union was capable of producing music that was really art, and yet here we are in a century in which the string quartets of Shostakovich have made it into the chamber music canon.  That what has so often been dismissed by serious philosophers of aesthetics and connoisseurs of Western concert music could be coded to be played and heard at more than just the level of kitsch is a point that, perhaps, philosophers like Adorno and Scruton, on either side of the Marxist and capitalist divide of the twentieth century, may have struggled to understand in the way practicing and practical musicians have. 

Adorno advised that we not ignore the objections of a reactionary to the failures of modern music and Scruton leveled criticisms toward popular song that recapitulated Adorno’s complaints about the failure of popular music and popular song to rise above the assembly line modular construction of song-making machines.  Adorno rejected tonality and Scruton affirmed it but what neither philosopher managed to do in their lives was suggest ways in which practical musicians could do something that could be a rebuttal to the criticisms both men made of the possibilities of popular song by making sonatas out of themes drawn from popular songs. 

I’ve  seen plenty of people write plenty of words to say that Theodor Adorno or Roger Scruton is right or wrong in terms of words, in terms of their ideas.  I think both men were wrong but I think it’s paramount that musicians demonstrate that both men were wrong not just in words, though I could write plenty of words about why I think both men were wrong and right about a variety of things, but to demonstrate that they misread the possibilities of music that can be made drawing inspiration from popular songs in music.  

I don’t see any reason that a capable and committed musician can’t take in and take on the criticisms of Adorno and Scruton alike and still make music that shows that they misjudged the asserted limitations of the musical vocabulary of popular song.  Anyone can simply say that these men were wrong but saying why in both words and music takes a lot of work and a lot of thought.  I think both philosophers were in error but in a way that invites careful thought and which invites a musical as well as a philosophical and theoretical response.  I owe both philosphers a great debt of gratitude for writing as cogently as they did on music even where I strongly disagree with them and I think that if their work is taken together they point to problems and possibilities that musicians should relish considering at the level of philosophy, aesthetics, theory and music-making.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Doris Akers, "It's in My Heart" and "Every Time I Feel the Spirit"

One of the fun discoveries I made reading Mark Burford's Mahalia Jackson and the Black Gospel Field is learning about the music of Doris Akers.  Burford pointed out that Akers was an influential songwriter, singer and arranger in gospel music whose life and work, as yet, has not received any serious academic attention.

I may or may not have heard or even sung some Akers songs way, way back in my Pentecostal days but if so it was so long ago that it's like I never heard of her before, which may be the most likely scenario.  Although I've written a fair amount about contemporary classical guitar literature that's a bit more on the avant garde side I do have a place in my heart for gospel music, too. :)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwKe65a-G0s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKAozuicyvUE

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Theodor Adorno and Roger Scruton, thoughts on the intertwining legacies of philosophers on music and aesthetics

Essays on Music: Selected, with introduction, commentary and notes by Richard Leppert; new translations by Susan H. Gillespie
Theodor Adorno
University of California Press
ISBN 0-520-22672-0
ISBN 0-520-23159-7

(c) 2002 by Regents of University of California


Difficulties (1967)

page 648

The methods that are linked to the traditional language of music have become retrospectively problematic as a result of those that were discovered later--namely, they have become schematic. [emphasis added] One hears, through what is newer, weaknesses of the old that were once hidden. There are very many things that sound stereotyped that were not stereotyped at the time. Richard Wagner, who was very alert in these matters, already registered this. Disrespectfully, but forthrightly, he said that in some of Mozart's pieces he could hear the dishes clatter on the table--Tafelmusik, even when it was by no means intended as such. It was possible to follow this schema as long as it was not evident as such, as long as it was still of a piece with the self-evident preconditions of composing. But once composing, and the relationship of the composer to the schemas, has lost its virginity, then the schemas not only emerge baldly and annoyingly, but lead in many places to anomalies, contradict the moments that have meanwhile been emancipated. [emphasis added]...

... The person who commits himself to what is older only out of despair at the difficulties of the new is not comforted, but becomes the victim of his own helpless nostalgia for a better era that, finally, never actually existed.

On the other hand, one should not dispense with reactionary objections in the manner of an apologist, but should learn the measure of correct insights that they offer, which so frequently give them the advantage over moderate, progressive cultural liberalism. [emphasis added]...

Roger Scruton died this week and he was known as a conservative and as a philosopher who dealt with aesthetics, particularly the aesthetics of music.  He would be regarded by many admirers of Adorno as a reactionary, perhaps even "the" reactionary on matters of the arts and the art of music.  So it is useful to remember that no less than Theodor Adorno himself wrote that we should not dispense with the reactionary who comments about the problems in contemporary music simply because they have reactionary or conservative political views.  

People who only read Scruton's writing on aesthetics and music in the 1990s would not have necessarily kept up with changes in his philosophy, arguments and aesthetic verdicts, much like those who only read Adorno's Philosophy of New Music and didn't move on to read his writings on music from the 1950s and later would not be in a position to know he began to reassess his positions on music and new music (i.e. high avant garde modernist post-tonal music).  It's necessary and fair to both Adorno and Scruton to note that both men began to budge on some issues and that they eventually articulated comparable criticisms of both Cage and Stockhausen, even if those who avidly read only Adorno or Scruton seem all too apt to not know this.

Although I could quote from Scruton's other works the clearest statement he made regarding Adorno on pop music and classical traditions came from Understanding Music.

Understanding Music: Philosophy and Interpretation
Roger Scruton
Continuum
Copyright (c) Roger Scruton 209

page 211, "Why Read Adorno?"
... his attack on mass culture should be seen in the Old Testament spirit, as a repudiation of idolatry, a reaffirmation of the age-old distinction between true and false gods--between worship that ennobles and redeems us, and the superstition that drops us in the ditch. ... 

page 216

One conclusion to draw from the history of American popular music is that we should take the world "popular" seriously--far more seriously than it was taken by Adorno. [emphasis added] Pace Adorno and Horkheimer, this music was not imposed upon the American people by an unscrupulous `culture industry' eager to exploit the most degenerate aspects of popular taste. It arose `by an invisible hand' from spontaneous music-making, with a large input from Afro-American music, both secular and religious. When that music later spread around the world it was not by some imperial venture of a conquering civilization but by the same process whereby it arose--the spontaneous taste of ordinary people. [emphasis added]
...

. . . 
Well, it's exactly that claim that has been contested by a variety of scholars in the West, that the spread of jazz was not some imperial venture.  Music historians have been compiling work in the last twenty years on the evolution of jazz in the Soviet bloc and other totalitarian states.  The Peter Lang Edition series Jazz under State Socialism has at least four volumes.  I've only begun cracking open two of them and have a copy of Bruce Johnson's Jazz and Totalitarianism published by Routledge.  Super short version for now, the Soviet bloc viewed jazz as a form of cultural and musical imperialism and an emerging body of history chronicling the work of the CIA funding arts in the Cold War era makes a cumulative case that if Frances Lauren Stoner's version is a bit tilted toward treating the CIA as bankrolling modernist art, music and literature to a fault, there are more nuanced variations of the case that African American popular music was presented as indicative that in spite of reports of racism and racial segregation it was possible for black American musicians to achieve fame and success, thus Mark Burford's Mahalia Jackson and the Black Gospel Field, which I personally can't recommend enough.  In sum, Marxists would view the spread of American popular music as a form of imperialism no matter what someone like Roger Scruton would say or write.  

At the same time, there's a kind of counter-argument within a celebration and historical survey of American popular music.  Even if we set aside Soviet or Marxist allegations that American popular music was imperialist, there are other issues raised as to whether what was marketed was a reflection of what was going on in day to day musical life or whether what was on sale was a tailored product.  


There has been some revisionist scholarship since the end of the Cold War that argues somewhere between Adorno and Scruton by proposing that, yes, American popular music was immensely popular and reflected popular musical styles and interests but that where Scruton's statement has some truth Adorno's has some truth, too.  To put it simply, in a work like Segregating Sound by Karl Miller and others music historians have been pointing out that there was still a top-down aspect to what Adorno called the culture industry.  If Adorno acrimoniously insisted in his earliest writings jazz was a false amalgam of march and salon music (arguably true!) and not in any way provably linked to authentic African or Afro-American music (indisputably false!), another element of his polemic against the culture industry was that formulaic music was presented as the music of freedom and as black musicians by the industry.  Adorno was wrong about the "what" but may have had a point about the "how"--Miller's Segregating Sound makes a long-form case that there was a Jim Crow regime built within and sustained by the recording industry that pervasively and persistently marketed musicians on the basis of racial and racist stereotypes.  


John W. Troutman's Kika Kila is a history of the steel guitar tradition and he points out in his book and in some interviews that we've been sold a history of American popular music that is cast in terms of white and black when the fuller and richer history is in technicolor--advocacy for African diaspora music by mid-20th century musicologists, folklorists and music historians ironically advocated on behalf of the African origins of the slide guitar in a way that obliterated Native Hawaiian contributions to American popular music.  I'm still working through Troutman's book on steel guitar (which he plays himself) and want to get to his monograph on Native American song and ceremony but as I'm working through his writings I get a sense that revisionist musicology and music history can be dismissed by conservatives as trying to attack some venerated musical styles and that's not exactly the case.  Arguing that well-intentioned white liberal and progressive scholars and black activist writings may have used a white-black script to era Native Hawaiian, Native American or Asian contributions to the evolution of American popular music is hardly making an argument that there's something wrong with the symphonies of Beethoven or Mahler.  


None of which, of course, is what I recall Scruton proposing.  Scruton, the most conservative of conservative philosophers dealing with the aesthetics of music, took it as given that jazz is both music and art and that the American songbook and song in general had proven the lifeblood of musical life and practice still anchored to some form, however abstracted and modified, of tonality
.


pages 216-217

The great days of American popular music may now be past: rock `n roll changed the Blues from a lyrical confession to a Dionysian display, and the long-term effects are now being felt, not only in America, but all across the world.  Nevertheless, visitors to America are still astonished by the number of spontaneous musical episodes that they encounter: marching bands at football matches; barber shop singing; church choirs and `praise dances'; jazz combos in the clubs and Blue Grass in the tavern.  ...  

... The American song exists because people have enjoyed it and asked for more. It is the musical expression of consumer sovereignty. And like everything typical of America it gets up the intellectual nose, precisely because it seems to leave no opening for the would-be priesthood. Intellectuals on the left have never been able to accept that the spontaneous choices of ordinary people might be the final explanation of their social world.  ... 

..

Against Adorno's claims that American popular son was full of kitsch Scruton's rejoinder could be summed as "Yes, so what? Kitsch may be more true than Adorno's idea of `truth' about modern urban life"  What Scruton wrote was:

page 219
It is undeniable that this musical tradition is full of kitsch and false sentiment. But there is another way besides Adorno's of looking at that fact. The American popular song arose from the spontaneous desire of ordinary Americans to celebrate the world that they themselves had created.  It has never been a critical idiom, any more than the folk-music of old Europe was critical. It takes America as it comes, and its lyricism is a lyricism of acceptance. Kitsch is there in the music because kitsch lies all around. If this music were to make an effort to eliminate kitsch and false sentiment it would not be seeing through lies but telling them. There is a kind of realism here, to which Adorno closed his ears, just as he closed his mind to the real function of song in the life of ordinary people--which is to help them to be at one with their social condition, and to normalize their sufferings and their joys.  As their social conditions change, so do their songs ...

What Scruton wrote around is a topic the blues and jazz historians have described as different levels of coded meaning in song lyrics.  It might suffice for the moment to touch upon that without much discussion since I'm writing this in the week of Roger Scruton's death but it seems worthwhile to point that within Scruton's point about kitsch being with us and that the kitsch may be more honest about what life is like in our culture--something may be kitsch and simultaneously dealing with human experience at another level that isn't perceptible to people who are not conversant in the norms and conventions and symbols and signs being played with in the context of an art work.  To break it down in a more colloquial and concrete way, Mahler can be simultaneously kitsch and serious.  Samurai Jack can be an adventure cartoon kids can watch but that adults can watch in a different way.


There were moments where Scruton made claims about Adorno that led me to think he had not seriously engaged with Adorno's later work.  This passage in particular comes to mind from Understanding Music.


page 223
Adorno's defense of the avant-garde of his day was based on the view that `standardization' could not take root in this idiom, which would always question its own status as a commodity and refuse to be driven by aesthetic routines.  But the routines soon arose and, from the tin-cans of John Cage to the bombastic operas of Stockhausen, the musical landscape today is strewn with avant-garde kitsch.

The trouble with that is that it seems Scruton didn't get around to Adorno's blistering condemnation of Cage and Stockhausen and integral serialism.  I wrote about that at some length in a piece called "Between forms of non-choice: Adorno’s criticism of serialism and aleatory as techniques that obliterated the decision-making subject, Leonard Meyer’s observation on the abjection of choice in modernist musical history, and some brief thoughts on jazz"

As far back as 1955 Adorno wrote the following:
On the Aging of the New Music  (1955) translated by Robert Hullot-Kentor and Frederic Will


page 195

... The reproach that the critics have not understood the most recent compositions of unchecked rationalization can hardly be maintained because such musical reasoning wants only to be demonstrated mathematically, not understood. If one asks after the function of some phenomenon within a work's total context of meaning, the answer is a further exposition of the system.   ...

page 196
... Musical logic becomes a caricature of logic, one that is certainly implicit in it from the start, in the rigid interdiction of anything that the system finds foreign, the latter being left to atrophy. Already in the first measure the listener senses with resignation that he has been turned over to an infernal machine, which will run its course mercilessly, until fate has completed its cycle and he can breathe again.

To be sure most of the younger twelve-tone composers are less demanding. Unfamiliar with the real accomplishment of the Schoenberg School and in possession only of the rules of twelve-tone composition, which has become apocryphal through separation from its accomplishment, these young people amuse themselves with the juggling of tone rows as a substitute for tonality, without really composing at all.  This touches on a genuinely paradoxical situation: the disappearance of tradition within New Music itself. The innovators, Schoenberg, Bartok, Stravinsky, Webern, Berg, even Hindemith, were all raised on traditional music. Their idiom, their critical stance, their resistance, all crystallized around that tradition. This tradition is no longer a living part of their successors. In its place they turn what is in itself a critical musical ideal into an artificially positive one, without summoning up the spontaneity and effort that it requires.  This failing can hardly be cast as a reproach. ...

...There is reason to suspect that those who have not mastered the new material are also unable to control the other, that they cannot compose an irreproachable four-voice Palestrina setting, and in many cases can hardly harmonize a chorale. The pedagogical virtues of the academy have been lost without the realm of freedom having been entered.


Even music criticism hardly helps. Critics and composers only rarely meet on the same level. Most critics are even less able than the averagely educated musician to judge a demanding new score according to its inner coherence, its level of form, its individual power. Instead they fulfill their service with substitutes such as reports about their chance pleasure or displeasure in the music, or provide journalistic information. The critic more or less routinely brings forth everything possible about the impression a work makes, its history, style, and author without carrying out what the name of his profession demands: critique, making a judgment, debatable though that judgment might be.  ...

This is, ultimately, where we can see that what Adorno said to condemn the inhuman technocratic tendencies of 20th century modernism that abandoned the traditions necessary to provide a contextual meaning to any rebellion against it as evidenced in the works of Schoenberg, Berg, Bartok, Stravinsky and even Hindemith, gets recapitulated sans Marxism by Roger Scruton.  In other words, Adorno warned "us" to not dismiss a Roger Scruton's criticism of a Cage or a Stockhausen just because Scruton's a reactionary or a conservative.  Adorno himself argued that Cage and Stockhausen developed techniques that obliterated the decision-making subject.

As I've written in the past it was possible for a Marxist Maoist like John Tilbury or Cornelius Cardew to find a problem in John Cage that was substantially mirrored by the criticism of the Presbyterian minister Francis Schaeffer.  That piece was "The Music of John Cage and the Self-Extinguishing Avant Garde", which surveys Schaeffer and Cardew and Tilbury and Richard Taruskin and Leonard B. Meyer if you want to read that.  Call it the bias of being an American but I think it was possible for both Scruton and Adorno to have too harsh an assessment of what Cage was attempting to do.  There are some posts on that here and here.  Since I only really enjoy his music for prepared piano I defer to Kyle Gann and others to articulate a defense of what Cage said he was trying to do in contrast to what philosophers such as Adorno or Scruton told us Cage was trying to do.

Of course here I am thousands of words into this essay and I've been exploring points of agreement and disagreement between Adorno and Scruton on aesthetic, music, pop music, and art.  I've quoted extensively from Scruton's chapter titled "Why Read Adorno?"  Scruton did not write that as a rhetorical question with an answer of "You shouldn't".  Scruton read Adorno.  I think he may not have read enough Adorno but it's my own case that Adorno and Scruton both budged within and shifted from their earlier more categorical claims about popular music.  Eric Oberle has a dense but intriguing monograph out on Adorno, "the wound" and how being an exile in the United States and seeing how racism against blacks and anti-semitism forced him to start rethinking his earlier stated views on a variety of topics.  Adorno died before he arrived at the shifting position that Eric Oberle is arguing was beginning to take place in Adorno's thought.  Scruton has just died so he, too, may have died having observed and articulated the nature of a philosophical and artistic set of problems that others may have to tackle.

Adorno came to respect the musicianship of black jazz musicians without coming around to conceding jazz itself, as popular song, was really art.  Scruton, as we've seen, affirms the American songbook and song tradition as the music we'd best draw from in contrast to John Cage or Stockhausen.  On this Scruton and I agree.

Scruton aimed to take Adorno's accusation of kitsch and the standardizing mass effects of pre-digested emotions seriously.  Scruton also took seriously an argument from Adorno's Philosophy of New Music that would likely be impossible for non-musicians or musicians not deeply steeped in the Western literate traditions of music to even pick up.  Scruton put it as follows (bold emphases are mine):

page 224

Adorno argued that the addiction to musical fetishes--by which he means the standardized effects of popular music--produces a `regression' in the art of listening, what we might today call a shrinking attention span. People are content with snippets that they can hum or whistle, and--thanks to mechanical reproduction--will listen to a movement, a tune or a bar detached from the work to which it owes its significance. Inevitably, therefore, the old art of listening, which involves following a complex development over long stretches of time, gives way to an interest in catchy fragments, shortened sequences that can be detached from their context and repeated at will. And it is just such fragments, Adorno implies, that become cliches, which the ear of the listener and the mind of the composer prefer to the hard work of harmonic and melodic argument.

Now Adorno has a point here ... Whatever we think about tonality, there is no doubt that it has lent itself to a new kind of music, in which the lengthy paragraphs of the symphonic tradition have been replaced by the repetition of statically conceived cells--as in the ballets and symphonies of Stravinsky. The architecture of a Beethoven or Bruckner symphony, in which the modulation from tonic to dominant might take place over a span of minutes, and in which every scale degree is conscripted to the task of transporting the material from one solid foundation to the next--this wonderful art-form is less and less present in the tonal writing of modern composers, and the `developing variations' which Schoenberg discerned in the classical style and sought to revive through his serial language are now rarely encountered. The American popular song deploys the tonal language in a manner that is short-breathed and quickly exhausted; and the idiom of jazz, which has taken tonality in a new direction, and discovered harmonic sequences and dissonant cadences which have no place in the classical repertoire, has not produced any comparable expansion of the musical argument. On the contrary, where there should be development there is usually only improvisation, and where there might be the exploration of emotion and the building of character, there is usually the repetition of the same cheerful smile.  

page 225
... Something is right in what Adorno is saying. But all attempts to pin down the thesis come up against the immovably singular nature of aesthetic judgement.  And the failure of Adorno to produce any prescription, other than his entirely negative advocacy of atonality against the tonal cliche, leaves the matter hanging in the air.  

page 226

In the light of this it seems to me that we should retrace our steps and revisit the attempts by composers to learn from the example of song--both folk song and the jazz-influenced songbook. Although this means a return from large-scale forms to the strophic idiom of natural music, it also involves a return to the crucible of tonality, in which the tonal order is first crystallized in the soup of sound.  That, it seems to me, is the direction taken by Debussy; and he was followed by Janacek, Dutilleux, Britten, Messiaen and many more--brilliant musicians who were led by their ears and not by theories, even if they were capable, like Messiaen, of theorizing at the highest level.  ...


Now there are quite a few things I could say in response to this.  Scruton has summarized an argument Adorno made that since Stravinsky introduced hebephrenic schizophrnia into music by way of brutal and mind-numbing motoric music in Rite of Spring there has been a rupture between what Scruton has described as symphonic or sonata "argument" and the mind-obliterating "grove" of dance. Adorno notoriously insisted that once "argument" and "groove" as modes of musical cognition became separated they both became false.  Scruton does not affirm that.  On the other hand, he could be taken to have argued that jazz has groove and harmony and melodic art but that it was trapped in the cul de sac of a performance tradition that encouraged "strophic" composition and performance.  To put this in a way that may be more understandable to classical musicians, the argument is that jazz has gotten stuck in the dead end of continuous variation as both form and technique.

It was hardly always the case.  I can think right now of Kyle Gann's analysis of James P Johnson's Harlem Symphony.  Whether or not the "argument" was at a level that Adorno or Roger Scruton would regard as "serious" Johnson wrote a symphony that clearly has sonata forms and he did this back in the 1930s around the time Paul Hindemith was extracting the Mathis der Mahler suite from his opera.  Speaking as a Hindemith fan the opera is a bore but the symphonic suite is remarkable.

Not all of Scruton's fans will be willing to go along with what I'm about to say.  Scruton, in sum, told us that if we had to choose between the arch-modernist direction of John Cage and Boulez and Stockhausen or American popular song to go with American popular song.  Of course Scruton was more nuanced than that.  He also all too briefly touched upon the life and work of the American composer George Rochberg:


...
Our model for the future should therefore not be the sterile works of Stockhausen and Boulez but the patient attempts to adapt the old to the new, and to find notes that touch the hearts of listeners because they express the heart of their composer. George Rochberg's music points us in this direction. But it raises the question that surely troubles all serious music-lovers now, which is whether we can find our way to a musical syntax which is as expressive as the tonal language of Rochberg, but which is not shut off from the surrounding world of popular culture. This is the theme to which I shall address myself in the next post.

Now I've written at some length on my belief that what Scruton called Rochberg's rejection of serialim in favor of tonality is better understood as Rochberg adopting code-switching as a compositional technique.



It doesn't just so happen Kyle Gann has written some stuff on Rochberg's Second Symphony that he's got up online.  I'm still trying to get to the Rochberg symphony but I was pleased to see Gann mentioned a very new monograph on Rochberg's life and work by Amy Lynn Wlodarski. Pretty good chance I will grab that because as I've been blogging here over the years I've found that a mixture of writing about music from George Rochberg, Ben Johnston and Leonard B. Meyer have, with some heavy doses of Adorno and Scruton thrown in for good measure and a bit of Augustine lurking in the background, have helped me think through how a guitarist could approach the classical guitar musical traditions as a bridge between American popular song (all kinds) and "classical music".  I have often disagreed with Scruton on specific and general things but I have been grateful for his writings not just in spite of that but because of that.  

I happen to agree with Scruton that we're better off turning to the American songbook for musical possibilities than John Cage or Pierre Boulez.  I sort of agree that in its commercial form blues and jazz have not tended to be used in ways that lend themselves to symphonic "sonata" level argument but this would, ironically, be what Adorno warned the music industry was not likely to let happen.  Even here, however, I'm planning on getting to the Wynton Marsalis violin concerto that just got released.  My concern with philosophers like Adorno and Scruton is that they have often been so busy formulating their philosophical arguments about the nature of musical arguments that the questions they raise may have, somewhere and somehow, already been given answers in musical works that they don't hear because the world and the people in the world are so abundant and varied no one can know or hear all of it on this earth.  

Jazz as a music that is simultaneously popular music and art music has presented philosophical and aesthetic challenges to the concert music traditions in the West and East and by "jazz" I use the term to refer not just to jazz as jazz historians would call it but to all of ragtime and even Tin Pan Alley, too.  Why?  Because, invoking Roger Scruton, all of this is tied together by song, not high art song as much as the music of the streets.  Scruton became known as a conservative philosopher on music and aesthetics but as a conservative he concluded that a revitalization of tonality that repudiates Adorno's stance against tonality as stretched to its hackneyed limits by the late Romantic composers is going to happen by taking popular song seriously.  Not all of Scruton's admirers were, have been, or will ultimately be willing to follow that path as Scruton has prescribed it.  Even Roger Scruton may have possibly balked at taking that path himself.